The combined treatment with orbital and pretarsal botulinum toxin injections in the management of poorly responsive blepharospasm
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- Esposito, M., Fasano, A., Crisci, C. et al. Neurol Sci (2014) 35: 397. doi:10.1007/s10072-013-1526-2
Blepharospasm (BS) is a focal dystonia involving involuntary contractions of muscles around the eyes. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is the most effective treatment for BS and the technique of injection changes depending on the clinical picture. Usually typical BS benefits from the injection in the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi (OOc) muscle (orbital injection), while BoNT injection in the pretarsal part of OOc muscle is helpful especially for the atypical BS (opening eyelid apraxia). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two injection techniques, the orbital versus the combined (injection in both orbital and pretarsal part of OOc) in BS patients with unsatisfactory response to BoNT. Nineteen patients with typical BS not having a satisfactory response from BoNT treatment with the orbital injection (primary and secondary resistant patients) were studied. After 3 months from the last orbital injection patients received the combined injection; they were assessed with the JRS and BSDI scales after 4 weeks from the last orbital and the first combined injection. Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the mean score of JRS and BSDI scales comparing the combined with orbital injection. This study shows that the treatment of typical BS can have better results when BoNT is injected with the combined technique in primary and secondary resistant patients.