, Volume 27, Issue 2 Supplement, pp s123-s129

Which triptan for which patient?

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Abstract

The triptans were developed for the acute treatment of a migraine attack and have revolutionised the treatment of this disorder since their introduction in the early 1990s. Although their mechanisms of actions are similar and based on the stimulation of specific serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors including peripheral 1B and central and peripheral 1D subtypes, each triptan has its own distinctive pK properties that result in different profiles of efficacy and tolerability. Triptans work by decreasing neurogenic inflammation peripherally in the meninges, vasoconstriction of meningeal vessels and by modulating secondary-order neurons in the brain stem. Studies of patient attitudes towards their acute care regimens reveal that they are often unhappy with some aspect of their treatment—usually the speed of action, degree of efficacy, presence of adverse events and the need for additional doses due to frequent and/or rapid recurrence. The majority of patients, when asked in a clinical trial performed at tertiary care headache centres, are willing to try another triptan. The aim of this article is to review the pK and clinical characteristics of these acute care, migraine-specific triptan medications and discuss how their individual characteristics lead to their preferred choice in various clinical scenarios. The pK and clinical efficacy data presented are taken from older published studies in which triptans were compared to placebo or each other, but the patients were asked to wait till the headache reached moderate or severe intensity prior to taking study medication. New studies have looked at early treatment paradigms and result in better efficacy data, but are difficult to compare due to different endpoints.