Structural analysis of tool-use by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
Using Matsuzawa’s hierarchical system of classification, I compared tool-use patterns of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The results indicated that wild C. apella exhibit fewer and less complex tool-use patterns than do captive C. apella and wild and captive P. troglodytes. Although most patterns of tool-use observed among P. troglodytes occur in captive C. apella, there are some notable exceptions, including tool-use in communicative contexts and the use ¶of three-tool combinations. I conclude that C. apella are unique among monkeys in their demonstrated propensities for higher-order combinatorial behavior and are likely capable of using symbolic combinations, although not at the level of complexity that has been demonstrated in ¶P. troglodytes.