Animal Cognition

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 67–76

Effects of tilted orientations and face-like configurations on visual search asymmetry in macaques

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0638-7

Cite this article as:
Nakata, R., Eifuku, S. & Tamura, R. Anim Cogn (2014) 17: 67. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0638-7


Visual search asymmetry has been used as an important tool for exploring cognitive mechanisms in humans. Here, we examined visual search asymmetry in two macaques toward two types of stimulus: the orientation of line stimuli and face-like stimuli. In the experiment, the monkeys were required to detect an odd target among numerous uniform distracters. The monkeys detected a tilted-lines target among horizontal- or vertical-lined distracters significantly faster than a horizontal- or vertical-lined target among tilted-lined distracters, regardless of the display size. However, unlike the situation in which inverted-face stimuli were introduced as distracters, this effect was diminished if upright-face stimuli were used as distracters. Additionally, monkeys detected an upright-face target among inverted-face distracters significantly faster than an inverted-face target among upright-face distracters, regardless of the display size. These results demonstrate that macaques can search a target efficiently to detect both tilted lines among non-tilted lines and upright faces among inverted faces. This clarifies that there are several types of visual search asymmetry in macaques.


FaceVisual searchSearch asymmetrySearch efficiencyMacaque monkey

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ToyamaToyamaJapan