Research Article

Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 1235-1241

Anti-inflammatory effect of the immature peel extract of Jinkyool (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka)

  • Hye-Sun ShinAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Seong-Il KangAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Hee-Chul KoAffiliated withJeju Sasa Industry Development Agency, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Hyo-Min KimAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Youn-Suk HongAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Seon-A YoonAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju
  • , Se-Jae KimAffiliated withDepartment of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Jeju National University, Jeju Email author 

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Abstract

The peel of jinkyool (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka) has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for treatment of a number of diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In the present study, we compared the flavonoids content and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic peel extracts from both immature and mature fruits. Comparing to the mature peel extract (MPE), the immature peel extract (IPE) contained more abundant flavonoids. IPE more effectively suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (IPE, 67.6±1.2%; MPE, 78.9±2.4% at 300 μg/mL of control), nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, as well as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, IPE reduced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38) activation, suggesting that IPE may exert an anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines that suppress activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, these results indicate that IPE has potential for use as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Keywords

anti-inflammation RAW 264.7 cell inflammatory mediator mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Citrus sunki