Magnetization of Gd \(\) cluster: Anomalous thermal behavior

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Theoretical studies of the temperature (T) dependence of magnetization of Gd13 clusters have been carried out within a classical Heisenberg model using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is shown that for a broad range of values of \(\), defined as the ratio between competing ferro and anti-ferro magnetic couplings, the cluster magnetization increases with T in the low T region, as seen in experiment. The clusters are also shown to exhibit a wide distribution of moments at a given T, which broadens significantly with increasing T. It is suggested that this may affect the observed magnetic behavior of magnetic clusters in Stern-Gerlach experiments.