This paper describes a method for measuring the three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index distribution in a single cell. The method can be used to observe the distribution of cell components without fluorescence staining. The two-dimensional optical path length distributions from multiple directions are obtained by non-contact rotation of the cell. These optical path lengths are converted into the line integrals of the refractive index, and the 3D refractive-index distribution is reconstructed by means of computed tomography. The refractive-index distribution in a breast cancer cell can be measured using a phase-shifting Mach—Zehnder interferometer in conjunction with proximal two-beam optical tweezers.