Optical Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 149–157

Analytical Designing of Two-Aspherical-Mirror Anastigmats Permitting Practical Misalignments in a Soft-X-Ray Optics

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
  • Masaki Yamamoto

DOI: 10.1007/s10043-006-0149-8

Cite this article as:
Toyoda, M. & Yamamoto, M. OPT REV (2006) 13: 149. doi:10.1007/s10043-006-0149-8


A new analytical method of designing two-aspherical-mirror anastigmats was developed and applied to searching solution groups of soft X-ray microscopes of a large misalignment tolerance. The two-mirror anastigmat configurations were expressed by a practical variable related to pupil obstruction limiting the system throughput. Axial coma and other aberrations caused by a slight decenter of the system were then formulated to represent sensitivity to misalignment. These formulations enabled a global survey of solution groups as demonstrated by a designing example of soft X-ray microscopes with a magnification m = −1/50, which resulted in four solutions more insensitive to misalignment than a standard Schwarzschild optics in the soft X-ray region. Some solutions were also found to have much larger fields of view suitable for high resolution imaging as confirmed by computer ray tracing.

Key words

anastigmataspherical mirrormisalignmentsoft X-raymicroscope

Copyright information

© The Optical Society of Japan 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
    • 1
  • Masaki Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Soft X-Ray MicroscopyInstitute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku UniversityAoba-ku, SendaiJapan