OPTICAL SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

Optical Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 149-157

First online:

Analytical Designing of Two-Aspherical-Mirror Anastigmats Permitting Practical Misalignments in a Soft-X-Ray Optics

  • Mitsunori ToyodaAffiliated withResearch Center for Soft X-Ray Microscopy, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University
  • , Masaki YamamotoAffiliated withResearch Center for Soft X-Ray Microscopy, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University

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Abstract

A new analytical method of designing two-aspherical-mirror anastigmats was developed and applied to searching solution groups of soft X-ray microscopes of a large misalignment tolerance. The two-mirror anastigmat configurations were expressed by a practical variable related to pupil obstruction limiting the system throughput. Axial coma and other aberrations caused by a slight decenter of the system were then formulated to represent sensitivity to misalignment. These formulations enabled a global survey of solution groups as demonstrated by a designing example of soft X-ray microscopes with a magnification m = −1/50, which resulted in four solutions more insensitive to misalignment than a standard Schwarzschild optics in the soft X-ray region. Some solutions were also found to have much larger fields of view suitable for high resolution imaging as confirmed by computer ray tracing.

Key words

anastigmat aspherical mirror misalignment soft X-ray microscope