, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 287–297

Accumulation of Carbon and Nitrogen in Residential Soils with Different Land-Use Histories


    • Department of Natural ResourcesCornell University
    • Department of Geography and EnvironmentBoston University
  • Peter M. Groffman
    • Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • Jennifer C. Jenkins
    • Climate Change DivisionUS Environmental Protection Agency
  • Richard V. Pouyat
    • USDA Forest Service
  • Timothy J. Fahey
    • Department of Natural ResourcesCornell University
  • Steward T. A. Pickett
    • Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
  • Mary L. Cadenasso
    • Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of California

DOI: 10.1007/s10021-010-9409-3

Cite this article as:
Raciti, S.M., Groffman, P.M., Jenkins, J.C. et al. Ecosystems (2011) 14: 287. doi:10.1007/s10021-010-9409-3


Urban areas are growing in size and importance; however, we are only beginning to understand how the process of urbanization influences ecosystem dynamics. In particular, there have been few assessments of how the land-use history and age of residential soils influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes, especially at depth. In this study, we used 1-m soil cores to evaluate soil profile characteristics and C and N pools in 32 residential home lawns that differed by previous land use and age, but had similar soil types. These were compared to soils from eight forested reference sites. Residential soils had significantly higher C and N densities than nearby forested soils of similar types (6.95 vs. 5.44 kg C/m2 and 552 vs. 403 g N/m2, P < 0.05). Results from our chronosequence suggest that soils at residential sites that were previously in agriculture have the potential to accumulate C (0.082 kg C/m2/y) and N (8.3 g N/m2/y) rapidly after residential development. Rates of N accumulation at these sites were similar in magnitude to estimated fertilizer N inputs, confirming a high capacity for N retention. Residential sites that were forested prior to development had higher C and N densities than present-day forests, but our chronosequence did not reveal a significant pattern of increasing C and N density over time in previously forested sites. These data suggest that soils in residential areas on former agricultural land have a significant capacity to sequester C and N. Given the large area of these soils, they are undoubtedly significant in regional C and N balances.

Key words

carbonnitrogensoilresidentialurbanlawnturfgrassforestdevelopmentland use

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011