Simulated Nitrogen Deposition Causes a Decline of Intra- and Extraradical Abundance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Changes in Microbial Community Structure in Northern Hardwood Forests
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Increased nitrogen (N) deposition caused by human activities has altered ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. To understand the effects of altered N availability, we measured the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the microbial community in northern hardwood forests exposed to long-term (12 years) simulated N deposition (30 kg N ha−1 y−1) using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and hyphal in-growth bags. Intra- and extraradical AMF biomass and total microbial biomass were significantly decreased by simulated N deposition by 36, 41, and 24%, respectively. Both methods of extraradical AMF biomass estimation (soil PLFA 16:1ω5c and hyphal in-growth bags) showed comparable treatment responses, and extraradical biomass represented the majority of total (intra-plus extraradical) AMF biomass. N deposition also significantly affected the microbial community structure, leading to a 10% decrease in fungal to bacterial biomass ratios. Our observed decline in AMF and total microbial biomass together with changes in microbial community structure could have substantial impacts on the nutrient and carbon cycling within northern hardwood forest ecosystems.
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- Simulated Nitrogen Deposition Causes a Decline of Intra- and Extraradical Abundance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Changes in Microbial Community Structure in Northern Hardwood Forests
Volume 13, Issue 5 , pp 683-695
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- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
- phospholipid fatty acid
- microbial community
- sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
- in-growth bags
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Ecosystem Science Center, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, 49931, USA
- 5. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 830 North University, 2019 Kraus Natural Science Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-1048, USA
- 2. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Houghton, Michigan, 49931, USA
- 3. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89512, USA
- 4. Environmental Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439-4843, USA