Baisden TW, Amundson R. 2003. An analytical approach to ecosystem biogeochemistry modeling. Ecol Appl 13(3):649–63.CrossRef
Barrow NJ. 1980. Evaluation and utilization of residual phosphorus in soils. In: Khasanweh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ, Eds. The role of phosphorus in agriculture. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy Inc., Crop Science Society of America Inc., Soil Science Society of America Inc. pp 333–59.
Bennett EM, Reed-Anderson T et al. 1999. A phosphorus budget for the Lake Mendota watershed. Ecosystems 2:69–75.CrossRef
Bobbink R. 1991. Effects of nutrient enrichment in Dutch chalk grassland. J Appl Ecol 28(1):28–41.CrossRef
Boring LR, Swank WT et al. 1988. Source, fates, and impacts of nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems: review and synthesis. Biogeochemistry 6:119–59.CrossRef
Carpenter SR. 2005. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: bistability and soil phosphorus. PNAS 102(29):10002–5.CrossRefPubMed
Carpenter SR, Caraco NF et al. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8(3):559–68.CrossRef
Collins SL, Knapp AK et al. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280(5364):745–7.CrossRefPubMed
Condron LM, Goh KM. 1990. Nature and availability of residual phosphorus in long-term fertilized pasture soils in New Zealand. J Agric Sci (Cambridge) 114:1–9.CrossRef
Crawley MJ, Johnston AE et al. 2005. Determinants of species richness in the Park Grass Experiment. Am Nat 165:179–92.CrossRefPubMed
de Mazancourt C, Loreau M et al. 1998. Grazing optimization and nutrient cycling: when do herbivores enhance plant production? Ecology 79(7):2242–52.CrossRef
Elser JJ, Bracken MES et al. 2007. Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 10:1135–42.CrossRefPubMed
Elser JJ, Dobberfuhl DR et al. 1996. Organism size, life history and N:P stoichiometry. Towards a unified view of cellular and ecosystem processes. Bioscience 46:674–84.CrossRef
Firbank LG, Perry JN et al. 2003. The implications of spring-sown genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops for farmland biodiversity: a commentary on the Farm Scale Evaluations of Spring Sown Crops, Scientific Steering Committee.
Frossard E, Condron LM et al. 2000. Processes governing phosphorus availability in temperate soils. J Environ Qual 29:15–23.
Goh KM, Condron LM. 1989. Plant availability of phosphorus accumulated from long-term applications of superphosphate and effluent to irrigated pastures. N Z J Agric Res 32:45–51.
Goldberg S, Sposito G. 1985. On the mechanism of specific phosphate adsorption by hydroxylated mineral surfaces: a review. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 16(8):801–21.CrossRef
Halm BJ, Stewart JWB et al. 1972. The phosphorus cycle in a native grassland ecosystem. Isotopes and radiation in soil–plant relationships including forestry. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. pp 571–85.
Haygarth PM, Condron LM. 2004. Background and elevated phosphorus release from terrestrial environments. In: Valsami-Jones E, Ed. Phosphorus in environmental technology: principles and applications. London: IWA Publishing. pp 79–92.
Haynes RJ, Williams PH. 1992. Long-term effect of superphosphate on accumulation of soil phosphorus and exchangeable cations on a grazed, irrigated pasture site. Plant Soil 142:123–33.
Hiernaux P, Turner MD. 1996. The effect of clipping on growth and nutrient uptake of Sahelian annual rangelands. J Appl Ecol 33:387–99.CrossRef
Janssens F, Peeters A et al. 1998. Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant Soil 202(1):69–78.CrossRef
Jiang Z, Sullivan WM. 2004. Nitrate uptake of seedling and mature Kentucky Bluegrass plants. Crop Sci 44:567–74.
Johnson AH, Frizano J et al. 2003. Biogeochemical implications of labile phosphorus in forest soils determined by the Hedley fractionation procedure. Oecologia 135:487–99.PubMed
Johnston AE, Poulton PR. 1977. Yields on the Exhaustion Land and changes in the NPK content of soils due to cropping and manuring 1852–1975. Rothamsted Report for 1976, Part 2. pp 53–85.
Krupa SV. 2003. Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3
) on terrestrial vegetation: a review. Environ Pollut 124:179–221.CrossRefPubMed
Loneragan JF, Grove TS et al. 1979. Phosphorus toxicity as a factor in zinc-phosphorus interactions in plants. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:966–72.
MacDuff JH, Jackson SB. 1992. Influx and efflux of nitrate and ammonium in Italian ryegrass and white clover roots: comparisons between the effects of darkness and defoliation. J Exp Bot 43:525–35.CrossRef
Maron JL, Jefferies RL. 2001. Restoring enriched grasslands: effects of mowing on species richness, productivity, and nitrogen retention. Ecol Appl 11(4):1088–100.CrossRef
Marrs RH. 1985. Techniques for reducing soil fertility for nature conservation purposes - a review in relation to research at Ropers Heath, Suffolk, England. Biol Conserv 34(4):307–32.CrossRef
Marrs RH. 1993. Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe—theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Adv Ecol Res 24:241–300.
Marrs RH, Snow CSR et al. 1998. Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils. Biol Conserv 85:69–82.CrossRef
McCollum RE. 1991. Build up and decline in soil phosphorus: 30-Year trends on a Typic Umprabuult. Agron J 83:77–85.
McDowell RW, Monaghan RM. 2002. The potential for phosphorus loss in relation to nitrogen fertiliser application and cultivation. N Z J Agric Res 45:245–53.
McDowell RW, Sharpley AN et al. 2001. Processes controlling soil phosphorus release to runoff and implications for agricultural management. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 59:269–84.CrossRef
McGill WB, Cole CV. 1981. Comparative aspects of cycling of organic C, N, S and P through soil organic matter. Geoderma 26:267–86.CrossRef
McGroddy ME, Daufresne T et al. 2004. Scaling of C:N:P stoichiometries in forests worldwide: implications of terrestrial Redfield-type ratios. Ecology 85(9):2390–401.CrossRef
McLauchlan K. 2006. The nature and longevity of agricultural impacts on soil carbon and nutrients: a review. Ecosystems 9:1364–82.CrossRef
McLauchlan KK, Hobbie SE et al. 2006. Conversion from agriculture to grassland builds soil organic matter on decadal timescales. Ecol Appl 16(1):143–53.CrossRefPubMed
McNaughton SJ, Chapin FS. 1985. Effects of phosphorus nutrition and defoliation on C4
graminoids from the Serengeti Plains. Ecology 66(5):1617–29.CrossRef
Neubert MG, Caswell H. 1997. Alternatives to resilience for measuring the responses of ecological systems to perturbations. Ecology 78(3):653–65.CrossRef
Newman EI. 1995. Phosphorus inputs to terrestrial ecosytems. J Ecol 83(4):713–26.CrossRef
O’Neill RV, DeAngelis DL et al. 1989. Multiple nutrient limitations in ecological models. Ecol Modell 46:147–63.CrossRef
Olander LP, Vitousek PM. 2000. Regulation of soil phosphatase and chitinase activity by N and P availability. Biogeochemistry 49:175–90.CrossRef
Parton WJ, Stewart JWB et al. 1988. Dynamics of C, N, P and S in grassland soils: a model. Biogeochemistry 5:109–31.CrossRef
Perring MP, Hedin LO et al. 2008. Increased plant growth from nitrogen addition should conserve phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems. PNAS 105:1971–6.CrossRefPubMed
Pilkington MG, Caporn SJM et al. 2005. Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland Calluna moor: N and P transformations. Environ Pollut 135:469–80.CrossRefPubMed
Pywell RF, Bullock JM et al. 2007. Enhancing diversity of species poor grasslands: an experimental assessment of multiple constraints. J Appl Ecol 44:81–94.CrossRef
Rajaniemi TK. 2003. Explaining productivity–diversity relationships in plants. Oikos 101:449–57.CrossRef
Raynaud X, Leadley PW. 2004. Soil characteristics play a key role in modeling nutrient competition in plant communities. Ecology 85(8):2200–14.CrossRef
Richter DD, Allen HL et al. 2006. Bioavailability of slowly cycling soil phosphorus: major restructuring of soil P fractions over four decades in an aggrading forest. Oecologia 150:259–71.CrossRefPubMed
Ruess JO, Innis GS. 1977. A grassland nitrogen flow simulation model. Ecology 58:379–88.CrossRef
Schlesinger WH. 1997. Biogeochemistry. An analysis of global change. San Diego: Academic Press.
Shane MW, Lambers H. 2006. Systemic suppression of cluster-root formation and net P uptake rates in Grevillea crithmifolia
at elevated P supply: a proteacean with resistance for developing symptoms of “P toxicity”. J Exp Bot 57(2):413–23.CrossRefPubMed
Sharpley AN, Jones CA et al. 1984. A simplified soil and plant phosphorus model. II. Predictions of labile, organic, and sorbed phosphorus. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:805–9.CrossRef
Sharpley AN, McDowell RW et al. 2004. Amounts, forms, and solubility of phosphorus in soils receiving manure. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:2048–57.CrossRef
Smith P, Andren O et al. 2005. Carbon sequestration potential in European croplands has been overestimated. Glob Chang Biol 11:2153–63.CrossRef
Stevens CJ, Dise NB et al. 2004. Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands. Science 303:1876–9.CrossRefPubMed
Tallowin JRB, Smith REN. 2001. Restoration of a Cirsio-Molinietum fen meadow on an agriculturally improved pasture. Restor Ecol 9(2):167–78.CrossRef
Tallowin JRB, Smith REN et al. 2002. Use of fertilizer nitrogen and potassium to reduce soil phosphorus availability. In: Frame J, Ed. Conservation Pays? Reconciling environmental benefits with profitable grassland systems, vol 36. Reading: British Grassland Society. pp 163–6.
Thompson K, Parkinson JA et al. 1997. A comparative study of leaf nutrient concentrations in a regional herbaceous flora. New Phytol 136:679–89.CrossRef
Tiessen H, Moir JO. 1993. Characterization of available P by sequential extraction. In: Carter MR, Ed. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC. pp 75–86.
Tiessen H, Stewart JWB et al. 1982. Cultivation effects on the amounts and concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in grassland soils. Agron J 74:831–5.CrossRef
Tiessen H, Stewart JWB et al. 1984. Pathways of phosphorus transformations in soils of differing pedogenesis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:853–8.CrossRef
Tinker PB, Nye PH. 2000. Solute movement in the rhizosphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Treseder KK, Vitousek PM. 2001. Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82(4):946–54.CrossRef
Vadas PA, Krogstad T et al. 2006. Modeling phosphorus transfer between labile and nonlabile soil pools: updating the EPIC model. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:736–43.CrossRef
Walker KJ, Stevens PA et al. 2004. The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biol Conserv 119:1–18.CrossRef
Walker TW, Syers JK. 1976. The fate of phosphorus during pedogenesis. Geoderma 15:1–19.CrossRef
Wallace LL, Macko SA. 1993. Nutrient acquisition by clipped plants as a measure of competitive success: the effects of compensation. Funct Ecol 7:326–31.CrossRef
Wassen MJ, Venterink HO et al. 2005. Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation. Nature 437:547–50.CrossRefPubMed
Xiong S, Nilsson C. 1999. The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. J Ecol 87:984–94.CrossRef