Ecosystems

, Volume 5, Issue 8, pp 0815–0822

Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

  • Kurt H. Riitters
  • James D. Wickham
  • Robert V. O'Neill
  • K. Bruce Jones
  • Elizabeth R. Smith
  • John W. Coulston
  • Timothy G. Wade
  • Jonathan H. Smith

DOI: 10.1007/s10021-002-0209-2

Cite this article as:
Riitters, K., Wickham, J., O'Neill, R. et al. Ecosystems (2002) 5: 0815. doi:10.1007/s10021-002-0209-2

Abstract

We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel−1) land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha. Most forest is found in fragmented landscapes. With 65.61-ha landscapes, for example, only 9.9% of all forest was contained in a fully forested landscape, and only 46.9% was in a landscape that was more than 90% forested. Overall, 43.5% of forest was located within 90 m of forest edge and 61.8% of forest was located within 150 m of forest edge. Nevertheless, where forest existed, it was usually dominant—at least 72.9% of all forest was in landscapes that were at least 60% forested for all landscape sizes. Small (less than 7.29 ha) perforations in otherwise continuous forest cover accounted for about half of the fragmentation. These results suggest that forests are connected over large regions, but fragmentation is so pervasive that edge effects potentially influence ecological processes on most forested lands.

Key words: forest ecology; edge effect; spatial pattern; landscape pattern; forest fragmentation.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt H. Riitters
    • 1
  • James D. Wickham
    • 2
  • Robert V. O'Neill
    • 3
  • K. Bruce Jones
    • 4
  • Elizabeth R. Smith
    • 2
  • John W. Coulston
    • 5
  • Timothy G. Wade
    • 2
  • Jonathan H. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Southern Research Station, US Forest Service, 3041 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USAUS
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USAUS
  3. 3.O'Neill Consulting, 53 Outer Drive, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, USAUS
  4. 4.Environmental Sciences Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada 89119, USAUS
  5. 5.Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USAUS