Sculptured thin films — II. Experiments and applications
- Cite this article as:
- Messier, R. & Lakhtakia, A. Mat Res Innovat (1999) 2: 217. doi:10.1007/s100190050088
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A report on the preparation and potential applications of sculptured thin films (STFs) is presented. STFs are nano-engineered columnar thin films in which the columnar direction can made to change easily and often during growth. STFs of virtually any material can be prepared through directional vapor deposition onto any surface under low adatom-mobility conditions. Columnar shapes, such as zig-zag, C-, S-, helicoidal and superhelical, can be engineered in any sequence and with controlled density profiles. Although oblique deposition and the resulting anisotropic properties have been known for over a century, the general recognition that such nano-engineered morphologies can lead to unique and predictable optical, mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, and biological properties has occured only recently.