Genetic and pathologic evolution of early secondary gliosarcoma
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- Codispoti, K.T., Mosier, S., Ramsey, R. et al. Brain Tumor Pathol (2014) 31: 40. doi:10.1007/s10014-012-0132-y
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Gliosarcoma is a subset of glioblastoma with glial and mesenchymal components. True secondary gliosarcomas (i.e. progressing from lower-grade precursors) in the absence of radiation therapy are very rare. We report the unique case of a 61-year-old male who developed a fibrillary astrocytoma (WHO grade II). In the absence of adjuvant therapy the tumor recurred 3 years later as a gliosarcoma comprising an infiltrating glial component and a curious, early high-grade sarcomatous component surrounding intratumoral vessels. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from the precursor low-grade glioma and from the glioma and sarcomatous components at progression. Samples were hybridized separately to a 300 k Illumina SNP array. IDH1(R132H) mutant protein immunohistochemistry was positive in all tissue components. Alterations identified in all samples included dup(1)(q21q41), del(1)(q41qter), del(2)(q31.1), del(2)(q36.3qter), del(4)(q35.1qter), dup(7)(q22.2q36.3), del(7)(q36.3qter), del(9)(p21.3pter), dup(10)(p13pter), del(10)(q26.13q26.3), dup(17) (q12qter), and copy neutral LOH(20)(p11.23p11.21). The recurrent tumor had additional alterations, including del(3)(p21.31q13.31), del(18)(q21.2qter), and a homozygous del(9)(p21.3)(CDKN2A locus) and the sarcoma component had, in addition, del(4)(p14pter), del(6)(q12qter), del(11)(q24.3qter), and del(16)(p11.2pter). In conclusion, unique copy number alterations were identified during tumor progression from a low-grade glioma to gliosarcoma. A subset of alterations developed specifically in the sarcomatous component.