, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 877-890
Date: 22 Feb 2011

The use of in situ techniques in R&D of Li and Mg rechargeable batteries

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Abstract

Rechargeable batteries are complicated devices in which three bulk zones (electrodes, electrolyte solution) and two interfaces have to work simultaneously and coherently, without any side reactions. The study of electrode materials and electrode–solution interfaces of rechargeable batteries requires the use of first-rate techniques for structure and surface analysis, in conjunction with electrochemical methods. The use of in situ techniques in which spectroscopy, diffractometry, or microscopy are measured in conjunction with an electrochemical response may be highly important and beneficial for battery research. We review herein the use of in situ Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray absorption, mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance techniques for research and development of rechargeable Li and Mg batteries.