, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 27-39

Solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometric sensors

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The availability and application of solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometric electrochemical sensors are briefly reviewed. For a long time, considerable efforts have been made to combine solid-state indicator electrodes with equivalent reference electrodes to take advantage of the absence of liquid system components to full capacity. In spite of various suggestions to solve the problem, no type of solid-state reference electrode is so far available with properties completely identical to conventional ones.