The characteristics of a wavelength tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode (VCSEL) with an external short cavity are analyzed, in which the oscillation wavelength can be changed over several tens of nanometers with a nearly constant optical power by slightly altering the external cavity length. Analysis is based on rate equations for the optical power and carrier density, taking the effect of carrier-induced refractive index change into consideration, together with the study of behaviors of a complex resonator. The reflection coefficient r2 of a laser facet facing the external mirror is shown to affect notably the characteristics of wavelength tuning, optical power and carrier density for a change of the external cavity length. It is also noticed that the wavelength change for this length becomes slower with relatively larger r2 due to an increasing contribution of the effect of carrier-induced refractive index change, within the optical gain spectrum of the laser diode.
vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode (VCSEL) tunable laser diode external short cavity carrier-induced refractive index change complex optical resonator