The impact of extremophiles on structural genomics (and vice versa)
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- Jenney Jr, F.E. & Adams, M.W.W. Extremophiles (2008) 12: 39. doi:10.1007/s00792-007-0087-9
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The advent of the complete genome sequences of various organisms in the mid-1990s raised the issue of how one could determine the function of hypothetical proteins. While insight might be obtained from a 3D structure, the chances of being able to predict such a structure is limited for the deduced amino acid sequence of any uncharacterized gene. A template for modeling is required, but there was only a low probability of finding a protein closely-related in sequence with an available structure. Thus, in the late 1990s, an international effort known as structural genomics (SG) was initiated, its primary goal to “fill sequence-structure space” by determining the 3D structures of representatives of all known protein families. This was to be achieved mainly by X-ray crystallography and it was estimated that at least 5,000 new structures would be required. While the proteins (genes) for SG have subsequently been derived from hundreds of different organisms, extremophiles and particularly thermophiles have been specifically targeted due to the increased stability and ease of handling of their proteins, relative to those from mesophiles. This review summarizes the significant impact that extremophiles and proteins derived from them have had on SG projects worldwide. To what extent SG has influenced the field of extremophile research is also discussed.
KeywordsStructural genomicsOpen reading frameExtremophilesThermophilesHyperthermophilesX-ray crystallographyNMR spectroscopy
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