, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 605-614

Microbial life in Champagne Pool, a geothermal spring in Waiotapu, New Zealand

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Abstract

Surveys of Champagne Pool, one of New Zealand’s largest terrestrial hot springs and rich in arsenic ions and compounds, have been restricted to geological and geochemical descriptions, and a few microbiological studies applying culture-independent methods. In the current investigation, a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches were chosen to determine microbial density and diversity in Champagne Pool. Recovered total DNA and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) content of spring water revealed relatively low values compared to other geothermal springs within New Zealand and are in good agreement with low cell numbers of 5.6 ± 0.5 × 106 cells/ml obtained for Champagne Pool water samples by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA (small-subunit ribosomal nucleic acid) gene clone library analyses of environmental DNA indicated the abundance of Sulfurihydrogenibium, Sulfolobus, and Thermofilum-like populations in Champagne Pool. From these results, media were selected to target the enrichment of hydrogen-oxidizing and sulfur-dependent microorganisms. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 16S rRNA gene sequences with similarities of ∼98% to Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, 94% to Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense, and 99% to Thermococcus waiotapuensis, respectively.

Communicated by D. A. Cowan.