, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 343–354

Proteomic analysis of Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 during growth at subzero temperatures


    • Center for Microbial EcologyMichigan State University
  • Sandra L. Tollaksen
    • Biosciences DivisionArgonne National Laboratory
  • Carol S. Giometti
    • Biosciences DivisionArgonne National Laboratory
  • Curtis Wilkerson
    • Research Technology Support FacilityMichigan State University
  • James M. Tiedje
    • Center for Microbial EcologyMichigan State University
  • Michael F. Thomashow
    • Center for Microbial EcologyMichigan State University
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00792-006-0042-1

Cite this article as:
Bakermans, C., Tollaksen, S.L., Giometti, C.S. et al. Extremophiles (2007) 11: 343. doi:10.1007/s00792-006-0042-1


It is crucial to examine the physiological processes of psychrophiles at temperatures below 4°C, particularly to facilitate extrapolation of laboratory results to in situ activity. Using two dimensional electrophoresis, we examined patterns of protein abundance during growth at 16, 4, and −4°C of the eurypsychrophile Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 and report the first identification of cold inducible proteins (CIPs) present during growth at subzero temperatures. Growth temperature substantially reprogrammed the proteome; the relative abundance of 303 of the 618 protein spots detected (∼31% of the proteins at each growth temperature) varied significantly with temperature. Five CIPs were detected specifically at −4°C; their identities (AtpF, EF-Ts, TolC, Pcryo_1988, and FecA) suggested specific stress on energy production, protein synthesis, and transport during growth at subzero temperatures. The need for continual relief of low-temperature stress on these cellular processes was confirmed via identification of 22 additional CIPs whose abundance increased during growth at −4°C (relative to higher temperatures). Our data suggested that iron may be limiting during growth at subzero temperatures and that a cold-adapted allele was employed at −4°C for transport of iron. In summary, these data suggest that low-temperature stresses continue to intensify as growth temperatures decrease to −4°C.


PsychrophilesProteomeLow-temperaturePsychrobacterCold acclimation



Cold inducible protein


Cold acclimation protein


Cold shock protein

Copyright information

© Springer 2006