European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 151–161

Voluntary versus involuntary hospital admission in child and adolescent psychiatry: a German sample

  • Jasmin Jendreyschak
  • Franciska Illes
  • Knut Hoffmann
  • Martin Holtmann
  • Claus-Rüdiger Haas
  • Falk Burchard
  • Barbara Emons
  • Markus Schaub
  • Carina Armgart
  • Hildegard Schnieder
  • Georg Juckel
  • Ida-Sibylle Haussleiter
Original Contribution

DOI: 10.1007/s00787-013-0440-8

Cite this article as:
Jendreyschak, J., Illes, F., Hoffmann, K. et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2014) 23: 151. doi:10.1007/s00787-013-0440-8

Abstract

Involuntary psychiatric admission is a central issue in mental health care, especially in the treatment of children and adolescents. Its legal regulations do not only differ between European countries, but also on a federal level. Only few studies so far dealt with rates of involuntary admission (RIA), mainly focusing on adults, rather than children and adolescents. None of the studies analyzed this topic in a large cohort. The aim of this regional cross-sectional study was to compare voluntary and involuntary admissions in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) regarding personal and admission characteristics. Furthermore, risk factors and predictors of involuntary admission should be identified. A retrospective analysis of hospital admission registers from three major German CAP hospitals over a period of 6 years (2004–2009) was conducted (N = 10,547 inpatients). Group comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily treated minors and a logistic regression to determine predictors of legal status were performed. Information on harm to self or others prior to the admission, medication and clinical outcome was not available due to data structure. 70.8 % of patients were voluntarily and 29.2 % involuntarily admitted. Both subsamples comprised more males. The RIA decreased consistently over the years, ranging from 25.7 to 32.4 %. The strongest predictor of being admitted involuntarily was suffering from mental retardation (OR = 15.74). Adolescence, substance abuse, psychotic disorders and admission on duty time were also strongly associated (OR > 3). In this first large cohort study on involuntary treatment of children and adolescents in Germany, about every fourth patient was treated involuntarily. Certain personal and disease-related factors increased the risk. Commitment laws and other legal instruments for regulating involuntary placements are inconsistent and a standardized description or systematic analysis is needed. The influence of demographic, institutional variables and care and health services aspects should also be investigated.

Keywords

EpidemiologyHospitalizationInvoluntary admissionRisk factorsAdolescence

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasmin Jendreyschak
    • 1
  • Franciska Illes
    • 1
  • Knut Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Martin Holtmann
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claus-Rüdiger Haas
    • 4
  • Falk Burchard
    • 5
  • Barbara Emons
    • 2
  • Markus Schaub
    • 2
  • Carina Armgart
    • 2
  • Hildegard Schnieder
    • 6
  • Georg Juckel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ida-Sibylle Haussleiter
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryLWL-University Hospital BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.LWL-Institute of Mental HealthLWL-University Hospital BochumBochumGermany
  3. 3.Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLWL-University Hospital HammHammGermany
  4. 4.Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLWL-Hospital Marl-SinsenMarl-SinsenGermany
  5. 5.Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLWL-Hospital MarsbergMarsbergGermany
  6. 6.Department of Information TechnologyLWL HeadquarterMünsterGermany