Date: 15 May 2007

Developmental psychopathology of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome – impact of ADHD

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Abstract

Background

In Tourette syndrome (TS) as a neurodevelopmental disorder not only the tics but also the comorbid conditions change with increasing age. ADHD is highly comorbid with TS and usually impairs psychosocial functioning more than the tics. Its impact on further comorbidity during development is important for clinical practice and still a matter of debate.

Method

Aspects of developmental psychopathology considering the impact of ADHD were examined by logistic regression (year wisely) in a cross-sectional sample of children and adolescents (n = 5060) from the TIC database.

Results

In TS+ADHD (compared to TS−ADHD) higher rates of comorbid conditions like OCD, anxiety disorders, CD/ODD and mood disorders were found in children (5–10 years). In adolescents (11–17 years) higher comorbidity rates in TS+ADHD remained only for CD/ODD and mood disorders. Accordingly, for OCD and anxiety disorders there was a steeper year wise increase of these comorbidities in TS−ADHD while it was a similar for CD/ODD and mood disorders in TS−ADHD as well as TS+ADHD.

Conclusion

Children with TS+ADHD have more comorbidities than the TS−ADHD group, whereas in both adolescent groups this did no longer hold for OCD and anxiety disorders. These findings indicate that in TS comorbid ADHD is associated with high rates of externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas TS without ADHD is associated only with internalizing problems in adolescence.

Active members of the Tourette Syndrome International Database Consortium (TIC) are: Henrik Aabech (Norway), Javad Allaghband-Rad (Iran), Cheston Berlin (USA), Ruth Bruun (USA), Cathy Budman (USA), Larry Burd (USA), Francesco Cardona (Italy), Francisco Cardoso (Brazil), Jose Castillo (Brazil), Susan Chien (Brazil), Sylvain Chouinard (Canada), Yves Dion (Canada), Jacques Eisenberg (Israel), Nihal Erfan (Saudi Arabia), Diane Fast (Canada), John Fayyed (Lebanon), Emilio Fernandez-Alvarez (Spain), Roger Freeman (Canada), Ken Gadow (USA), Oscar Gershanik (Argentina), Michel Gil (Canada), Don Gilbert (USA), Helga Hannesdottir (Iceland), Don Higgins (USA), Piotr Janik (Poland), Joseph Jankovic (USA), Bjorn Kadesjo (Sweden), Yukiko Kano (Japan), Jacob Kerbeshian (USA), Abraham Kessler (Israel), U Finn Knudsen (Denmark), Anne Korsgaard (Denmark), Anthony Lang (Canada), David Lichter (USA), Trygve Lindback (Norway), Zhisheng Liu (China), Danielle Lobel (Israel), Alida Magor (Israel), Euripides Miguel (Brazil), Kirsten Mueller-Vahl (Germany), Kieran O’Connor (Canada), Jessica Oesterheld (USA), Larry Pancer (Canada), Hugh Rickards (UK), Mary Robertson (UK), Veit Roessner (Germany), Aribert Rothenberger (Germany), Veit Roessner (Germany)Jeffrey Rubin (Canada), Evzen Ruzicka (Czech Republic), Kim St. John (Canada), Paul Sandor (Canada), Anton Scamvougeras (Canada), Gary Shady (Canada), Miriam Spinner (Canada), Mara Stamenkovic (Austria), Jeffrey Sverd (USA), Zsanett Tarnok (Hungary), Chris Van der Linden (Belgium), Arja Voutilainen (Finland), Yanki Yazgan (Turkey), Zheng Yi (China), Sam Zinner (USA)