European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Supplement 1, pp i38-i45

First online:

Factors related to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among children with ADHD in Europe at entry into treatment

  • Anne W. RileyAffiliated withJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 692 Hampton House Email author 
  • , Georg SpielAffiliated withLandeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Dept. of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry
  • , David CoghillAffiliated withSection of Psychiatry, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee
  • , Manfred DöpfnerAffiliated withDept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Cologne
  • , Bruno FalissardAffiliated withINSERM U669, Université Paris-Sud
  • , Maria J. LorenzoAffiliated withEli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Centre
  • , Ulrich PreussAffiliated withDept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Bern
  • , Stephen J Ralston**
  • , ADORE Study Group*

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To describe the associations between a range of baseline factors (demographic, family and clinical) and parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with ADHD taking part in the ADORE study.


HRQoL was rated using the Parent Report Form of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Forward-stepwise linear regression models were used to investigate associations with 26 independent variables. Separate models were fitted for each of the five CHIP-CE domains (Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Risk Avoidance and Achievement) and two subdomains of Achievement (Academic Performance and Peer Relations).


CHIP-CE domain mean scores were lower than community norms, especially for Risk Avoidance and Achievement, indicating a low level of HRQoL. Clinical factors significantly associated with a poorer HRQoL included ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity), conduct problems, peer relationship problems, having asthma, multiple other somatic symptoms and co-ordination problems. Family factors, such as having a parent with a health or mental health problem possibly caused by the child's illness, child not living with both parents and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also associated with a worse HRQoL in some CHIP-CE domains/subdomains.


Numerous factors independently impact on the HRQoL of children with ADHD.

Key words

ADHD children Europe health-related quality life