European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Supplement 1, pp i38–i45

Factors related to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among children with ADHD in Europe at entry into treatment

  • Anne W. Riley
  • Georg Spiel
  • David Coghill
  • Manfred Döpfner
  • Bruno Falissard
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
  • Ulrich Preuss
  • Stephen J Ralston**
  • ADORE Study Group*

DOI: 10.1007/s00787-006-1006-9

Cite this article as:
Riley, A.W., Spiel, G., Coghill, D. et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2006) 15: i38. doi:10.1007/s00787-006-1006-9



To describe the associations between a range of baseline factors (demographic, family and clinical) and parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with ADHD taking part in the ADORE study.


HRQoL was rated using the Parent Report Form of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Forward-stepwise linear regression models were used to investigate associations with 26 independent variables. Separate models were fitted for each of the five CHIP-CE domains (Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Risk Avoidance and Achievement) and two subdomains of Achievement (Academic Performance and Peer Relations).


CHIP-CE domain mean scores were lower than community norms, especially for Risk Avoidance and Achievement, indicating a low level of HRQoL. Clinical factors significantly associated with a poorer HRQoL included ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity), conduct problems, peer relationship problems, having asthma, multiple other somatic symptoms and co-ordination problems. Family factors, such as having a parent with a health or mental health problem possibly caused by the child's illness, child not living with both parents and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also associated with a worse HRQoL in some CHIP-CE domains/subdomains.


Numerous factors independently impact on the HRQoL of children with ADHD.

Key words

ADHDchildrenEuropehealth-related quality life



Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe


ADHD Rating Scale


Conduct Disorder


Children's Global Assessment Scale


Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale


Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition


Health-Related Quality of Life


Oppositional Defiant Disorder


Parent Report Form


Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne W. Riley
    • 1
  • Georg Spiel
    • 2
  • David Coghill
    • 3
  • Manfred Döpfner
    • 4
  • Bruno Falissard
    • 5
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
    • 6
  • Ulrich Preuss
    • 7
  • Stephen J Ralston**
  • ADORE Study Group*
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 692 Hampton HouseBaltimore, MD 21205USA
  2. 2.Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Dept. of Child and Adolescent NeuropsychiatryKlagenfurtAustria
  3. 3.Section of Psychiatry, Division of Pathology and NeuroscienceUniversity of DundeeDundee, ScotlandUK
  4. 4.Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  5. 5.INSERM U669, Université Paris-SudParisFrance
  6. 6.Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research CentreWindlesham, SurreyUK
  7. 7.Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland