European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 132–140

Adults’ self-efficacy beliefs and referral attitudes for boys and girls with AD/HD

  • Katerina Maniadaki
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
  • Efthymios Kakouros

DOI: 10.1007/s00787-005-0514-3

Cite this article as:
Maniadaki, K., Sonuga-Barke, E. & Kakouros, E. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2006) 15: 132. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0514-3


Males with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) are referred to specialists significantly more frequently than females. The aim of this study was to examine differences in mothers’ and prospective educators’ self-efficacy beliefs and severity perceptions towards boys and girls with AD/HD and to explore the inter-relationships between those perceptions and referral judgements. One hundred and fifteen female prospective preschool educators and 118 mothers of boys and girls aged 4–6, enrolled in kindergartens in Athens completed a questionnaire that: (a) presented a vignette describing a typical boy or girl with AD/HD, and (b) was followed by two scales exploring severity perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs with reference to the child described in the vignette. Mothers’ sense of self-efficacy was higher than educators’ and both samples had higher sense of self-efficacy towards girls with AD/HD than boys. Educators rated the boys’ behaviour as significantly more severe than girls’. Finally, perceived self-efficacy predicted severity perceptions and severity perceptions predicted referral decisions. To conclude, adults’ differentiated perceptions of severity of AD/HD in boys and girls, which might be influenced by their own limited self-efficacy beliefs, especially towards males, might account for a proportion of the differences in referral ratio of boys and girls with AD/HD.


AD/HD sex differences referral self-efficacy educators 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katerina Maniadaki
    • 1
  • Edmund Sonuga-Barke
    • 2
  • Efthymios Kakouros
    • 3
  1. 1.University of SouthamptonThrakomakedonesGreece
  2. 2.Developmental Brain & Behaviour Unit School of PsychologyUniversity of SouthamptonHighfieldUK
  3. 3.Department of Early Childhood EducationTechnological Educational Institution of AthensAthensGreece

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