Dental stem cells and their promising role in neural regeneration: an update
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- Martens, W., Bronckaers, A., Politis, C. et al. Clin Oral Invest (2013) 17: 1969. doi:10.1007/s00784-013-1030-3
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Stem cell-based therapies are considered to be a promising treatment method for several clinical conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and many others. However, the ideal stem cell type for stem cell-based therapy remains to be elucidated.
Stem cells are present in a variety of tissues in the embryonic and adult human body. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have their advantages and disadvantages concerning the isolation method, ethical issues, or differentiation potential. The most described adult stem cell population is the mesenchymal stem cells due to their multi-lineage (trans)differentiation potential, high proliferative capacity, and promising therapeutic values. Recently, five different cell populations with mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were identified in dental tissues: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, dental follicle precursor cells, and stem cells from apical papilla.
Each dental stem cell population possesses specific characteristics and advantages which will be summarized in this review. Furthermore, the neural characteristics of dental pulp stem cells and their potential role in (peripheral) neural regeneration will be discussed.