, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 659-668
Date: 27 Nov 2009

Kinetics of apatite formation on a calcium-silicate cement for root-end filling during ageing in physiological-like phosphate solutions

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Abstract

The bioactivity of calcium silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements has been attributed to their ability to produce apatite in presence of phosphate-containing fluids. This study evaluated surface morphology and chemical transformations of an experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cement as a function of soaking time in different phosphate-containing solutions. Cement discs were immersed in Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) or Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) for different times (1–180 days) and analysed by scanning electron microscopy connected with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. SEM-EDX revealed Ca and P peaks after 14 days in DPBS. A thin Ca- and P-rich crystalline coating layer was detected after 60 days. A thicker multilayered coating was observed after 180 days. Micro-Raman disclosed the 965-cm−1 phosphate band at 7 days only on samples stored in DPBS and later the 590- and 435-cm−1 phosphate bands. After 60–180 days, a layer ∼200–900 μm thick formed displaying the bands of carbonated apatite (at 1,077, 965, 590, 435 cm-1) and calcite (at 1,088, 713, 280 cm−1). On HBSS-soaked, only calcite bands were observed until 90 days, and just after 180 days, a thin apatite–calcite layer appeared. Micro-Raman and SEM-EDX demonstrated the mineralization induction capacity of calcium-silicate cements (MTAs and Portland cements) with the formation of apatite after 7 days in DPBS. Longer time is necessary to observe bioactivity when cements are immersed in HBSS.