, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 215-232
Date: 29 Nov 2005

Reprint of Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restorative materials

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Rating scales were developed for several factors that were considered relevant to the problem of clinically evaluating dental restorative materials. Examiners were trained to use the rating scales, and their performance was evaluated in field trials. Data analysis of examiner performance was used to revise the written criteria, and to train the examiners in making consistent judgments of dental restorations. Criteria were adopted when field testing indicated that examiners were able to duplicate their own judgments and judgments of other examiners at a predetermined level of acceptability. Further experience with the rating scales in actual clinical studies led to the consolidation of anterior and posterior criteria, which had been developed separately, and to the deletion of certain rating scales which failed to yield useful information. The rating scales which were finally adopted are for color match, cavo-survace marginal discoloration, anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and caries.


The criteria described in this report were developed by the former Materials and Technology Branch, Division of Dental Health, from August 1964 until February 1971. The Branch was responsible for an applied research program conducted to link basic physical, chemical, and biological properties of dental materials with clinical performance.
The work presented was begun in 1964 under the direction of the second author, now Assistant Dean for Research at the School of Dentistry, University of the Pacific, San Francisco, California. At that time, important conceptual contributions were made by Dr. Björn Hedegärd of the Odontologiska Kliniken, Stockholm, Sweden, in discussions with the second author and with Dr. R. J. McCune, now Director of Clinical Dental Research, Johnson and Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey and Dr. Richard Webber, of the National Institute of Dental Research, NIH. Miss Mildred Snyder developed many of the methods used to train and test examiners, and contributed greatly to the logical analysis of proposed criteria for evaluating dental restorations.
Others contributed to the formulation of the written criteria and helped to examine hundreds of restorations as the work progressed, including Drs. Bruce E. Johnson, Rudolph E. Micik, and Richard G. Weaver.
Special surveys were organized as part of residency projects conducted by Lt. Cols. Samuel C. Morgan and Warren A. Parker; their research reports are on file at the Dental Health Center.1,2 Lt. Col. Parker deserves special recognition for undertaking numerous administrative duties during his tour of duty at the Dental Health Center.
The success of this work depended on the efforts of numerous other people, not all of whom can be succinctly listed. Progress was possible during all phases of the work through the efforts of Mrs. Irene Chavez, Administrative Assistant, and Miss Penelope Benton, Statistical Assistant.
First published in U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Public Health Service 790244, San Francisco Printing Office 1971:1–42
See also introductory review: Bayne C, Schmalz G (2005) Reprinting the classic article on USPHS evaluation methods for measuring the clinical research performance of restorative materials. Clin Oral Invest 9, Issue 4
Authors deceased
An erratum to this article is availbale at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-005-0027-y.
An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-005-0027-y