Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 97–106

Interacting with mobile services: an evaluation of camera-phones and visual tags


    • Intel Research Cambridge
  • Richard Sharp
    • Intel Research Cambridge
  • Anil Madhavapeddy
    • Computer LaboratoryCambridge University
  • David Scott
    • Computer LaboratoryCambridge University
  • Eben Upton
    • Computer LaboratoryCambridge University
  • Alan Blackwell
    • Computer LaboratoryCambridge University
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00779-006-0064-9

Cite this article as:
Toye, E., Sharp, R., Madhavapeddy, A. et al. Pers Ubiquit Comput (2007) 11: 97. doi:10.1007/s00779-006-0064-9


We present a study of using camera-phones and visual-tags to access mobile services. Firstly, a user-experience study is described in which participants were both observed learning to interact with a prototype mobile service and interviewed about their experiences. Secondly, a pointing-device task is presented in which quantitative data was gathered regarding the speed and accuracy with which participants aimed and clicked on visual-tags using camera-phones. We found that participants’ attitudes to visual-tag-based applications were broadly positive, although they had several important reservations about camera-phone technology more generally. Data from our pointing-device task demonstrated that novice users were able to aim and click on visual-tags quickly (well under 3 s per pointing-device trial on average) and accurately (almost all meeting our defined speed/accuracy tradeoff of 6% error-rate). Based on our findings, design lessons for camera-phone and visual-tag applications are presented.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006