, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 334-341
Date: 13 Oct 2010

Determinants of bone mineral content and bone area in Indian preschool children

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the lifestyle factors that influence total body bone mineral content (TB BMC) and total body bone area (TB BA) in Indian preschool children. TB BMC and TB BA were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX PRO) in 71 apparently healthy children aged 2–3 years. A fasting blood sample was analyzed for serum concentrations of ionized calcium (iCa), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus (iP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 OHD). Dietary intake of energy, protein, calcium and phosphorus was estimated from a 3-day diet recall. The daily physical activity and sunlight exposure were recorded by a questionnaire. The study children were shorter than their age-gender matched WHO counterparts with a mean height for age Z score of –1.3 ± 1.5. The mean dietary intake of calcium was 46% of the Indian recommended dietary intakes (RDI). Seventy-three percent of children had low iCa concentrations, and 57% were deficient in vitamin D. Generalized linear model analysis revealed that height, lean body mass, weight, activity, sunlight exposure in minutes and dietary intakes of calcium, zinc and iron were the significantly influencing factors (p < 0.05) of TB BMC and TB BA. In conclusion, attaining optimal height for age, achieving the goals of overall nutrition with adequate calcium, iron and zinc intakes as well as adequate physical activity and sunlight exposure play an important role in achieving better TB BMC and TB BA in preschool children.