, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 101-107
Date: 08 Aug 2009

Effects of alcohol and nicotine on the mechanical resistance of bone and bone neoformation around hydroxyapatite implants

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Abstract

The consumption of alcohol or nicotine is harmful to the integrity of bone tissue, hindering or even impeding the fixation and maintenance of bone implants. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and nicotine, when consumed alone and simultaneously, on both bone mechanical resistance and bone neoformation around hydroxyapatite implants. Twenty rats were divided into four groups: control (CT), alcohol (A), nicotine (N) and nicotine + alcohol (N + A). After 4 weeks of alcohol and/or nicotine consumption, dense (HAD) and porous (HAP) bodies were respectively implanted in a surgically produced bone defect in the right and left tibiae. After the surgeries, the animals continued to consume alcohol and/or nicotine. After ninety days, the animals were sacrificed and the tibiae and femurs were isolated for histological processing and mechanical assays. All the animals presented newly formed bone tissue close to the HAD and HAP ceramic bodies. The animals of the N + A group presented a smaller volume of neoformed bone. Group A animals presented smaller bone volume around the implants in relation to the animals from group N. Bone resistance to mechanical loads was smallest in animals from the N + A group, followed (in order) by the A and N groups. Thus, it can be concluded that nicotine or alcohol consumption produced negative effects on bone mechanical resistance and on the osteogenesis around the HAD and HAP implants. In addition, the simultaneous consumption of the two substances intensified their harmful effects.