, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 220-228,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 17 Nov 2012

Optimization of the horizontal shape of CO2 injected domain and the depths of release in moving-ship type CO2 ocean sequestration


In moving-ship type CO2 ocean sequestration, liquid CO2 is discharged into a domain in a water column. Since the maximum CO2 concentration that is reached depends on the horizontal shape of the water column and the depths of release, it is very important to optimize these parameters for each injection site in order to minimize the biological impact. We conducted numerical experiments using an offline Oceanic General Circulation Model with a horizontal resolution of 0.1 degree × 0.1 degree. Experiments using a different horizontal site shape show that a site elongated in the meridional direction is effective to reduce the CO2 concentration. This is because CO2 has a tendency to be transported in a zonal direction. Optimization of the vertical distribution of CO2 injections is inherently determined by the balance of the following two factors; (1) dilution effect by eddy activity which decreases with depth, and the (2) predicted no effect concentration (PNEC), a criterion concentration causing no effect on biota, which increases with depth. Based on superposition of simulated CO2 concentration, we determined the optimized vertical distribution of CO2 injection which keeps the ratio of a simulated maximum CO2 concentration to PNEC constant.