Amino Acids

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 1007–1024

Simulated environmental criticalities affect transglutaminase of Malus and Corylus pollens having different allergenic potential

Authors

  • Rosa Anna Iorio
    • Department of Biology E.S.University of Bologna
  • Alessia Di Sandro
    • Department of Biology E.S.University of Bologna
  • Roberta Paris
    • Department of Fruit Tree and Woody Plant SciencesUniversity of Bologna
  • Giulia Pagliarani
    • Department of Fruit Tree and Woody Plant SciencesUniversity of Bologna
  • Stefano Tartarini
    • Department of Fruit Tree and Woody Plant SciencesUniversity of Bologna
  • Giampaolo Ricci
    • Department of PediatricsUniversity of Bologna
  • Donatella Serafini-Fracassini
    • Department of Biology E.S.University of Bologna
  • Elisabetta Verderio
    • School of Science and TechnologyNottingham Trent University
    • Department of Biology E.S.University of Bologna
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00726-011-1043-7

Cite this article as:
Iorio, R.A., Di Sandro, A., Paris, R. et al. Amino Acids (2012) 42: 1007. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1043-7

Abstract

Increases in temperature and air pollution influence pollen allergenicity, which is responsible for the dramatic raise in respiratory allergies. To clarify possible underlying mechanisms, an anemophilous pollen (hazel, Corylus avellana), known to be allergenic, and an entomophilous one (apple, Malus domestica), the allergenicity of which was not known, were analysed. The presence also in apple pollen of known fruit allergens and their immunorecognition by serum of an allergic patient were preliminary ascertained, resulting also apple pollen potentially allergenic. Pollens were subjected to simulated stressful conditions, provided by changes in temperature, humidity, and copper and acid rain pollution. In the two pollens exposed to environmental criticalities, viability and germination were negatively affected and different transglutaminase (TGase) gel bands were differently immunodetected with the polyclonal antibody AtPng1p. The enzyme activity increased under stressful treatments and, along with its products, was found to be released outside the pollen with externalisation of TGase being predominant in C. avellana, whose grain presents a different cell wall composition with respect to that of M. domestica. A recombinant plant TGase (AtPng1p) stimulated the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity, that in vivo is present in human mucosa and is involved in inflammation. Similarly, stressed pollen, hazel pollen being the most efficient, stimulated to very different extent sPLA2 activity and putrescine conjugation to sPLA2. We propose that externalised pollen TGase could be one of the mediators of pollen allergenicity, especially under environmental stress induced by climate changes.

Keywords

Climate changesEnvironmental pollutionPhospholipase A2Pollen allergenicityRespiratory allergiesTransglutaminase

Abbreviations

AtPng1p

Arabidopsis thaliana peptide N-glycanase

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

DMC

N′,N′-dimethyl casein

DTT

Dithiothreitol

EDTA

Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

EGTA

Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid

FDA

Fluorescein diacetate

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

GP

Germinated pollen

HEPES

N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′-(2-ethanesulfonic acid)

HRP

Horseradish peroxidase

IgE

Immunoglobulin E

MTT

1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan

nsLTP

Nonspecific lipid transfer protein

o/n

Overnight

PAs

polyamines

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

PMSF

Phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride

PR

Pathogen related

PU

Putrescine

sPLA2

Secreted phospholipase A2

rHu

Relative humidity

T

Temperature

TGase

Transglutaminase

tTGase

Tissue transglutaminase

UGP

Ungerminated pollen

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011