Post exercise carbohydrate–protein supplementation: phosphorylation of muscle proteins involved in glycogen synthesis and protein translation Article First Online: 28 December 2007 Received: 10 October 2007 Accepted: 12 November 2007 DOI:
Cite this article as: Ivy, J., Ding, Z., Hwang, H. et al. Amino Acids (2008) 35: 89. doi:10.1007/s00726-007-0620-2 Summary.
The enzymes Akt, mTOR, p70
S6K, rpS6, GSK3, and glycogen synthase interact in the control of protein and/or glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, and each has been found to respond to exercise and nutrient supplementation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that nutrient supplementation post exercise, in the form of a carbohydrate–protein (CHO–PRO) supplement, would alter the phosphorylation state of these enzymes in a manner that should increase muscle protein and glycogen synthesis above that produced by exercise alone. After a 45 min cycling session followed by sprints and again 15 min later, the subjects ( n = 8) ingested 400 ml of a CHO–PRO drink (7.8% dextrose and 1.8% protein-electrolyte) or a placebo drink, as assigned using a randomized, counter-balanced design with repeated measures. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken before exercise and at 45 min of recovery. At 45 min after supplementation, CHO–PRO treatment yielded greater phosphorylation of Akt (65%), mTOR (86%), rpS6 (85-fold), and GSK3α/β (57%) than pre-exercise levels ( p < 0.05). Although p70 S6k showed an exercise response after 45 min, there were no differences between treatments. Glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation was significantly reduced 45 min after exercise for both treatments, but the reduction in phosphorylation was greatest during the CHO–PRO treatment (3-fold decrease; p < 0.05), indicating greater activation of GS following supplementation. No difference between treatments was detected prior to exercise for any of the enzymes. These results suggest that a post exercise CHO–PRO supplement alters the phosporylation levels of the enzymes tested in a manner that should accelerate muscle glycogen synthesis and protein initiation during recovery from cycling exercise. Keywords: Akt – mTOR – p70 S6k – rpS6 – Glycogen – Protein synthesis
Authors’ address: John L. Ivy, PhD, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, Bellmont Hall 222, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712-0360, USA
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