Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength Article First Online: 20 September 2006 Received: 13 April 2006 Accepted: 17 July 2006 DOI:
Cite this article as: Willoughby, D., Stout, J. & Wilborn, C. Amino Acids (2007) 32: 467. doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0398-7 Summary.
This study examined 10 wks of resistance training and the ingestion of supplemental protein and amino acids on muscle performance and markers of muscle anabolism. Nineteen untrained males were randomly assigned to supplement groups containing either 20 g protein (14 g whey and casein protein, 6 g free amino acids) or 20 g dextrose placebo ingested 1 h before and after exercise for a total of 40 g/d. Participants exercised 4 times/wk using 3 sets of 6–8 repetitions at 85–90% of the one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA (
p < 0.05). The protein supplement resulted in greater increases in total body mass, fat-free mass, thigh mass, muscle strength, serum IGF-1, IGF-1 mRNA, MHC I and IIa expression, and myofibrillar protein. Ten-wks of resistance training with 20 g protein and amino acids ingested 1 h before and after exercise is more effective than carbohydrate placebo in up-regulating markers of muscle protein synthesis and anabolism along with subsequent improvements in muscle performance. Keywords: Resistance training – Insulin – Myosin heavy chain – IGF-1 – Amino acids References Adams, G 1998 Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading Exerc Sport Sci Rev 26 31 60 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar American College of Sports Medicine 2000Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription6 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins New York 24 26 Google Scholar Andersen, P, Saltin, B 1985 Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man J Physiol 366 233 249 PubMed Google Scholar Andersen, L, Tufekovic, G, Zebis, M, Crameri, R, Verlaan, G, Khaer, M, Suetta, C, Magnusson, P, Aagaard, P 2005 The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength Metabolism 54 151 156 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Baechle, T, Earle, R, Wathen, D 2000 Resistance training Baechle, T Earle, R eds. Essentials of strength training and conditioning2 Human Kinetic Champaign, IL 420 421 Google Scholar Ballard, T, Clapper, J, Specker, B, Binkley, T, Vukovich, M 2005 Effect of protein supplementation during a 6-mo strength and conditioning program on insulin-like growth factor I and markers of bone turnover in young adults Am J Clin Nutr 81 1442 1448 PubMed Google Scholar Bamman, M, Shipp, J, Jiang, J, Gower, B, Hunter, G, Goodman, A, McLafferty, C, Urban, R 2001 Mechanical load increase muscle IGF-1 and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280 E383 E390 PubMed Google Scholar Biolo, G, Tipton, K, Klein, S, Wolfe, R 1997 An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein Am J Physiol 273 E122 E129 PubMed Google Scholar Bird, S, Tarpenning, K, Marino, K 2006 Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men Eur J Appl Physiol 3 1 14 Google Scholar Bolster, D, Jefferson, L, Kimball, S 2004 Regulation of protein synthesis associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy by insulin-, amino acid-, and exercise-induced signaling Proc Nutr Soc 63 351 356 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Borsheim, E, Aarsland, A, Wolfe, R 2004a Effect of an amino acid, protein, and carbohydrate mixture on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14 255 271 Google Scholar Borsheim, E, Cree, M, Tipton, K, Elliott, T, Aarsland, A, Wolfe, R 2004b Effect of carbohydrate intake of net protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise J Appl Physiol 96 674 678 CrossRef Google Scholar Bowtell, J, Leese, G, Smith, K, Watt, P, Nevill, A, Rooyackers, O, Wagenmakers, A, Rennie, M 2000 Effect of oral glucose on leucine turnover in human subjects at rest and during exercise at two levels of dietary protein J Physiol 525 271 281 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Bradford, M 1976 A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein dye binding Anal Biochem 72 248 254 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Carroll, C, Fluckey, J, Williams, R, Sullivan, D, Trappe, T 2005 Human solues and vastus lateralis muscle protein metabolism with an amino acid infusion Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288 E479 E485 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Chomczynski, P, Sacchi, N 1987 Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidium thiocynate-phenol-chloroform extraction Anal Biochem 162 156 159 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar
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