Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece
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- Fornadel, A.P., Voudouris, P.C., Spry, P.G. et al. Miner Petrol (2012) 105: 85. doi:10.1007/s00710-012-0196-8
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The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid–vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid–vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid–vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid–vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid–vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid–vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing of magmatic fluids with meteoric water in the epithermal environment is responsible for the dilution of the ore fluids that formed Stage 3 veins. Eutectic melting temperatures of −35.4 to −24.3 °C for Type I inclusions hosted in both porphyry- and epithermal-style veins suggest the presence of CaCl2, MgCl2, and/or FeCl2 in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Sulfur isotope values of pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and molybdenite range from δ34S = −6.82 to −0.82 per mil and overlap for porphyry and epithermal sulfides, which suggests a common sulfur source for the two styles of mineralization. The source of sulfur in the system was likely the Fakos quartz monzonite for which the isotopically light sulfur isotope values are the result of changes in oxidation state during sulfide deposition (i.e., boiling) and/or disproportionation of sulfur-rich magmatic volatiles upon cooling. It is less likely that sulfur in the sulfides was derived from the reduction of seawater sulfate or leaching of sulfides from sedimentary rocks given the absence of primary sulfides in sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of the deposit. Late-stage barite (δ34S = 10.5 per mil) is inferred to have formed during mixing of seawater with magmatic ore fluids. Petrological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope data indicate that the metallic mineralization at Fakos Peninsula represents an early porphyry system that is transitional to a later high- to intermediate-sulfidation epithermal gold system. This style of mineralization is similar to porphyry-epithermal metallic mineralization found elsewhere in northeastern Greece (e.g., Pagoni Rachi, St. Demetrios, St. Barbara, Perama Hill, Mavrokoryfi, and Pefka).