Pollen carbohydrates and water content during development, presentation, and dispersal: a short review
First Online: 31 August 2006 Received: 22 March 2005 Accepted: 08 June 2005 DOI:
10.1007/s00709-006-0169-z Cite this article as: Pacini, E., Guarnieri, M. & Nepi, M. Protoplasma (2006) 228: 73. doi:10.1007/s00709-006-0169-z Summary.
Pollen accumulates starch reserves during development and the final stage of ripening. Before the anther opens, starch is totally or partially converted to pectins, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and to some unknown polysaccharides. Pollen is exposed to dispersing agents in an arrested developmental state which differs according to pollen water content. Pollen is classified as partially dehydrated or partially hydrated. The final water content may be reached before or after anther opening. Especially during exposure and dispersal, partially dehydrated pollen may interconvert soluble and insoluble reserves, modifying internal turgor pressure and hindering water loss or gain. Partially hydrated pollen is commonly devoid of mechanisms to conserve viability in time but has the advantage of quickly emitting pollen tubes on reaching the stigma.
Keywords: Pollen carbohydrate; Starch; Pectin; Sucrose; Desiccation tolerance; Pollen hydration status.
Correspondence and reprints: Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, 4 Via P.A. Mattioli, 53100 Siena, Italy.
References Abreu, I, Oliveira, M 2004 Immunolocalization of arabinogalactan proteins and pectins in Actinidia deliciosa pollen Protoplasma 224 123 128 PubMed Google Scholar Aouali, N, Laporte, P, Clément, C 2001 Pectin secretion and distribution in the anther during pollen development Planta 213 71 79 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Baker, HG, Baker, I 1979 Starch in angiosperm pollen grains and its evolutionary significance Am J Bot 66 591 600 CrossRef Google Scholar Bassani, M, Pacini, E, Franchi, GG 1994 Humidity stress responses in pollen of anemophilous and entomophilous species Grana 33 146 150 CrossRef Google Scholar Bianchini, M, Pacini, E 1996 Explosive anther dehiscence in Ricinus communis involves cell wall modifications and relative humidity Int J Plant Sci 157 739 745 CrossRef Google Scholar Bonner, J, Dickinson, HG 1990 Anther dehiscence in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. I. Structural aspects New Phytol 113 97 115 CrossRef Google Scholar Borba, RL, Semir, J 1999 Temporal variation in pollinarium size after its removal in species of Bulbophyllum: a different mechanism preventing self-pollination in Orchidaceae Plant Syst Evol 217 197 204 CrossRef Google Scholar Buitink, J, Walters, C, Hoekstra, F, Crane, J 1998 Storage behaviour of Typha latifolia pollen at low water contents: an interpretation on the basis of water activity and glass concepts Physiol Plant 103 145 153 CrossRef Google Scholar Carrizo García, C, Nepi, M, Pacini, E 2006 Structural aspects and ecophysiology of anther opening in Allium triquetrum Ann Bot 97 521 527 CrossRef Google Scholar Clement, C, Audran, JC 1995 Anther wall layers control pollen sugar nutrition in Lilium Protoplasma 187 172 181 CrossRef Google Scholar Clement, C, Pacini, E 2001 Anther plastids in angiosperms Bot Rev 67 54 73 Google Scholar Clement, C, Chavant, L, Audran, JC 1994 Anther starch variations in Lilium during pollen development Sex Plant Reprod 7 347 356 Google Scholar Clement, C, Laporte, P, Audran, JC 1998 The loculus content and tapetum during pollen development in Lilium Sex Plant Reprod 11 11 94 Google Scholar Footitt, S, Cohn, MA 2001 Developmental arrest: from sea urchin to seeds Seed Sci Res 11 2 16 Google Scholar Franchi, GG, Bellani, L, Nepi, M, Pacini, E 1996 Types of carbohydrate reserves in pollen: localization, systematic distribution and ecophysiological significance Flora 191 1 17 Google Scholar Franchi, GG, Nepi, M, Pacini, E 2002 Partially hydrated pollen: taxonomical distribution, ecological and evolutive significance Plant Syst Evol 234 211 227 CrossRef Google Scholar
Guarnieri M, Speranza A, Nepi M, Artese D, Pacini E (2006) Ripe pollen carbohydrate changes in
Trachycarpus fortunei: the effect of relative humidity. Sex Plant Reprod, DOI 10.1007/s00497-006-0027-3 Heslop-Harrison, J 1979 Pollen walls as adaptive systems Ann Missouri Bot Gard 66 813 829 CrossRef Google Scholar Heslop-Harrison, J, Heslop-Harrison, Y 1985 Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen J Cell Sci 73 135 157 PubMed Google Scholar Heslop-Harrison, J, Heslop-Harrison, Y 1992 Cyclical transformation of the actin cytoskeleton of hyacinth pollen subjected to recurrent vapour-phase hydration and dehydration Biol Cell 75 245 252 CrossRef Google Scholar Heslop-Harrison, J, Heslop-Harrison, Y, Heslop-Harrison, JS 1997 Motility in ungerminated grass pollen: association of myosin with polysaccharide-containing wall-precursors bodies (P-particles) Sex Plant Reprod 10 65 66 CrossRef Google Scholar Hoekstra, FA, Crowe, LM, Crowe, JH 1989 Differential desiccation sensitivity of corn and Pennisetum pollen linked to sucrose content Plant Cell Environ 12 83 91 CrossRef Google Scholar Hoekstra, FA, Crowe, LM, Crowe, J 1991 Effect of sucrose on phase behaviour of membranes in intact pollen of Typha latifolia L. as measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Plant Physiol 97 1073 1079 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Hoekstra, FA, Golovina, EA, Buitink, J 2001 Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance Trends Plant Sci 6 431 438 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Keijzer, CJ 1987 The process of anther dehiscence and pollen dispersal. 1. The opening mechanism of longitudinal dehiscing anthers New Phytol 105 487 498 CrossRef Google Scholar Keijzer, CJ 1999 Mechanisms of angiosperm anther dehiscence, a historical review Clement, C Pacini, E Audran, JC eds. Anther and pollen: from biology to biotechnology Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York 54 67 Google Scholar Kermode, AR, Finch-Savage, BE 2002 Desiccation sensitivity in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds in relation to development Black, M Pritchard, HW eds. Desiccation and survival of plants: drying without dying CABI Publishing Reading Google Scholar Lisci, M, Tanda, C, Pacini, E 1994 Pollination ecophysiology of Mercurialis annua L. (Euphorbiaceae), an anemophilous species flowering all year round Ann Bot 74 125 135 CrossRef Google Scholar Nepi, M, Pacini, E 1993 Pollination, pollen viability and pistil receptivity in Cucurbita pepo Ann Bot 72 526 536 CrossRef Google Scholar Nepi, M, Franchi, GG, Pacini, E 2001 Pollen hydration status at dispersal: cytophysiological features and strategies Protoplasma 216 171 180 PubMed Google Scholar Ottaviano, E, Mulcahy, DL 1989 Genetics of angiosperm pollen Adv Genet 26 1 64 CrossRef Google Scholar Pacini, E 1997 Tapetum character states: analytical keys for tapetum types and activities Can J Bot 75 1448 1459 Google Scholar Pacini, E 2000 From anther and pollen ripening to pollen presentation Plant Syst Evol 222 19 43 CrossRef Google Scholar Pacini, E, Franchi, GG 1983 Pollen grain development in Smilax aspera L. and possible function of the loculus Mulcahy, DL Ottaviano, E eds. Pollen biology and implications in plant breeding Elsevier New York 183 190 Google Scholar Pacini, E, Franchi, GG 1988 Amylogenesis and amylolysis during pollen grain development Cresti, M Gori, P Pacini, E eds. Sexual reproduction in higher plants Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York 181 186 Google Scholar Pacini, E, Hesse, M 2002 Types of pollen dispersing units in orchids, and their consequences for germination and fertilization Ann Bot 89 653 664 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Pacini, E, Hesse, M 2004 Cytophysiology of pollen presentation and dispersal Flora 199 273 285 Google Scholar Pacini, E, Viegi, L 1995 Total polysaccharide content of developing pollen in two angiosperm species Grana 34 237 241 Google Scholar Pacini, E, Franchi, GG, Lisci, M, Nepi, M 1997 Pollen viability related to type of pollination in six angiosperm species Ann Bot 80 83 87 CrossRef Google Scholar Speranza, A, Calzoni, GL, Pacini, E 1997 Occurrence of mono- or disaccharides and polysaccharide reserves in mature pollen grains Sex Plant Reprod 10 110 115 CrossRef Google Scholar Vesprini, JL, Nepi, M, Cresti, L, Guarnieri, M, Pacini, E 2002 Changes in cytoplasmic carbohydrate content during Helleborus pollen presentation Grana 41 16 20 CrossRef Google Scholar