The family Tymoviridae
- Cite this article as:
- Martelli, G., Sabanadzovic, S., Abou-Ghanem Sabanadzovic, N. et al. Arch. Virol. (2002) 147: 1837. doi:10.1007/s007050200045
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The family Tymoviridae comprises the genus Tymovirus, from which it derives its name, the genus Marafivirus and the newly established genus Maculavirus. Members of the family share the following characteristics: (i) non-enveloped isometric particles c. 30 um in diameter, with a rounded contour and prominent surface structures, and clustering of coat protein subunits in pentamers and hexamers; (ii) the presence in preparations of purified virus particles of two centrifugal components, made up of non-infectious protein shells (T) that may contain small amounts of RNA (primarily subgenomic coat protein mRNA) and of infectious nucleoproteins (B), that contain the virus genome; (iii) possession of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome with an unusually high cytidine content (32 to c. 50%), capped at the 5' terminus and containing a very large ORF encodes replication-related proteins analogous to those of other taxa of the "alpha-like" supergroup of ssRNA viruses; (iv) a replication strategy possibly encompassing posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide encoded by ORF1 by a papain-like virus-encoded protease, and coat protein expression via a subgenomic RNA; (v) the presence in infected cells of cytopathic structures, thought to be the sites of RNA replication, originating from severely altered chloroplasts and/or mitochondria, the periphery of which is lined with vesicles produced by the localized invaginations of the bounding membrane. There are 23, 4, and 2 known species in the genera Tymovirus, Marafivirus and Maculavirus, respectively. The genus Marafivirus also contains one tentative species.