Avian reovirus S1133-induced DNA damage signaling and subsequent apoptosis in cultured cells and in chickens
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- Lin, PY., Liu, HJ., Chang, CD. et al. Arch Virol (2011) 156: 1917. doi:10.1007/s00705-011-1063-3
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In this study, intracellular signaling in ARV S1133-mediated apoptosis was investigated. A microarray was used to examine the gene expression profiles of cells upon ARV S1133 infection and ARV-encoded pro-apoptotic protein σC overexpression. The analysis indicated that in the set of DNA-damage-responsive genes, DDIT-3 and GADD45α were both upregulated by viral infection and σC overexpression. Further investigation demonstrated that both treatments caused DNA breaks, which increased the expression and/or phosphorylation of DNA damage response proteins. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels were increased, and ARV S1133 and σC caused apoptosis mediated by DNA damage signaling. ROS scavenger NAC, caffeine and an ATM-specific inhibitor significantly reduced ARV S1133- and σC-induced DNA breaks, DDIT-3 and GADD45α expression, H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of DDIT-3 and GADD45α enhanced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by ARV S1133 and σC. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the involvement of the DNA-damage-signaling pathway in ARV S1133- and σC-induced apoptosis.