Brief Review

Archives of Virology

, Volume 156, Issue 2, pp 183-202

First online:

Adjuvants and delivery systems in veterinary vaccinology: current state and future developments

  • Peter M. H. HeegaardAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostics and Research, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark Email author 
  • , Laurence DedieuAffiliated withCIRAD, UMR CMAEE Contrôle des Maladies Animales
  • , Nicholas JohnsonAffiliated withVeterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw
  • , Marie-Frédérique Le PotierAffiliated withAnses Laboratoire de Ploufragan, Unité virologie et immunologie porcines
  • , Michael MockeyAffiliated withCIRAD, UMR CMAEE Contrôle des Maladies Animales
  • , Franco MutinelliAffiliated withHistopathology Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie
  • , Thomas VahlenkampAffiliated withFriedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health
  • , Marta VascellariAffiliated withHistopathology Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie
  • , Nanna Skall SørensenAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostics and Research, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark

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Abstract

Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that have low immunogenicity themselves. The development of such adjuvants may take advantage of the increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and factors controlling these responses. However, knowledge of such molecular details of immune mechanisms is relatively scarce for species other than humans and laboratory rodents, and in addition, there are special considerations pertaining to the use of adjuvants in veterinary animals, such as production and companion animals. With a focus on veterinary animals, this review highlights a number of approaches being pursued, including cytokines, CpG oligonucleotides, microparticles and liposomes.