Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 11, pp 1909–1919

A proposal to change existing virus species names to non-Latinized binomials

  • Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
  • Donald S. Burke
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Claude M. Fauquet
  • Said A. Ghabrial
  • Peter B. Jahrling
  • Karl M. Johnson
  • Michael R. Holbrook
  • Marian C. Horzinek
  • Günther M. Keil
  • Jens H. Kuhn
  • Brian W. J. Mahy
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
  • Craig Pringle
  • Edward P. Rybicki
  • Tim Skern
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Victoria Wahl-Jensen
  • Peter J. Walker
  • Scott C. Weaver
Virology Division News

DOI: 10.1007/s00705-010-0831-9

Cite this article as:
Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Burke, D.S., Calisher, C.H. et al. Arch Virol (2010) 155: 1909. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0831-9

Abstract

A proposal has been posted on the ICTV website (2011.001aG.N.v1.binomial_sp_names) to replace virus species names by non-Latinized binomial names consisting of the current italicized species name with the terminal word “virus” replaced by the italicized and non-capitalized genus name to which the species belongs. If implemented, the current italicized species name Measles virus, for instance, would become Measles morbillivirus while the current virus name measles virus and its abbreviation MeV would remain unchanged. The rationale for the proposed change is presented.

Introduction

The current species names approved by the ICTV are written in italics and capitalized but are otherwise the same as the English vernacular names of viruses written in Roman. This has resulted in considerable confusion among virologists who must differentiate in their writing, only on the basis of typography, between a species (a taxonomic construct created by taxonomists) and a virus (a molecular genetic parasite usually causing a disease) [1, 2, 3, 4].

It is important not to confuse a virus species (which is a taxonomic construct or concept which does not have a sequence and cannot be isolated, transmitted to a host or otherwise manipulated) with a virus (a physical entity) that can be isolated and manipulated experimentally and always exists in the form of many mutants, variants and strains possessing different genome sequences. For the same reason, other taxonomic constructs such as a family or a genus also cannot be transmitted to a host or be sequenced. It is incorrect to write, as is often done, that the species Measles virus (italics) or Cucumber mosaic virus (italics) has been isolated, transmitted to a host or sequenced.

In biology, many animals, plants and microorganisms do not have vernacular names in English or other languages. As a result scientists will write that Escherichia coli (the italicized species name) has been infected by a bacterial virus, falsely implying that a taxonomic entity could be infected. In virology this undesirable practice can be avoided since all viruses have vernacular names and these names (in Roman) can therefore be used if one wants to refer to the infectious agent rather than to the species into which it has been placed. Unfortunately at present many virologists do not use available correct typography and write that a virus species (italicized typography) can be transmitted or sequenced [5].

Rationale for introducing non-Latinized binomial species names

Binomial Latin names have been proposed for virus species [6, 7] although virologists have traditionally been opposed to the introduction of Latin names [8, 9, 10]. This would require the creation of new Latin names for more than 2,000 virus species and reaching agreement on such names is unlikely to be easy [11]. In contrast, introducing non-Latinized binomial species names would be simple since they are obtained by combining existing English virus names with accepted genus names without involving the creation of new names.

Very few virus species are not yet assigned to a genus and are therefore excluded from the proposed system [12]. Only in a small number of cases will it be necessary to change existing genus names, mostly because these names do not follow the ICTV rule that genus names must end in “virus” [13, 14, 15]. For instance the species Enterobacteria phage T1 is currently placed in a genus called “T1-like viruses” in the family Siphoviridae and a proper genus name would have to be introduced to make the binomial system applicable. However, the need to create proper genus names in such cases is already recognized by the ICTV. In the case of bacterial viruses, the word “phage” could be deleted from the species name altogether. For instance, the virus enterobacteria phage M13 which is a member of the genus Inovirus could be placed into a species with the name Enterobacteria M13 inovirus.

Since the species name, which is written in italics with a capital initial, would be obtained by replacing the terminal word “virus” in the virus name with the genus name to which the species belongs, it would be appropriate to have species names such as Human papilloma 32 alphapapillomavirus and Influenza A alphainfluenzavirus. If the species name contains “-virus” as a suffix as in Rotavirus A, the suffix can be removed to avoid repeating “virus” twice in the binomial species name which then becomes Rota A rotavirus. Such word repetition is also frequent in the species names of organisms, for instance Rattus rattus (roof rat), Ciconia ciconia (white stork) and Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western Lowland Gorilla).

The current proposal does not aim to provide a solution for these cases which should be addressed by the relevant ICTV Study Groups, once the principle of binomial species names has been accepted. However, these few problems are not a valid reason for rejecting the proposal.

Adopting the proposed binomial species names implies that a name change would have to occur when species are moved from one genus to another. However, by drawing attention to a new taxonomic placement this is probably a clarifying advantage rather than an alleged disadvantage [12]. Such changes are common in animal, plant and bacterial taxonomy.

Since all species names of animals, plants and microorganisms are binomials that always include a genus designation, virus species binomials will be easily recognizable as species names. The vernacular virus names in different languages (measles virus; virus de la rougeole; Masernvirus, etc.) will be recognized as virus names rather than species names and this will make it easier to distinguish between the two.

A major advantage of the proposed system is that inclusion of the genus affiliation in the species name indicates relationships with other viruses and provides additional information about the properties of members of the species. The advantage of a binomial name exists also when the genus affiliation appears at the end of the binomial species name instead of at the beginning. For instance, it would be immediately obvious that hepatitis A, B and C viruses are very different infectious agents belonging to different genera if the corresponding species names were Hepatitis A hepatovirus, Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus and Hepatitis C hepacivirus. Since all such binomial names for virus species end with the suffix -virus present in the genus name, they also clearly indicate that the names refer to viral entities. This is an advantage compared to the Latin names used in biology which do not indicate to the uninitiated whether the organism referred to is an animal, a plant or a microorganism.

The proposed binomial system is not a new idea. The system was used to index the viruses in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th ICTV reports published in 1976, 1979 and 1982, respectively [16, 17, 18], because the benefits of referring to entries like bluetongue orbivirus and West Nile flavivirus must have been obvious already at the time. In the 5th ICTV report published in 1991 [19] the binomials were retained only for the indexing of plant viruses. In the 6th ICTV report [20], the binomials were dropped altogether because certain animal virologists, for no declared reason, were opposed to their use. Binomial names for referring to viruses rather than to species have always been popular with plant virologists and they have been used in many books [21, 22, 23, 24]. Some animal virologists also find it helpful to use binomials to refer to viruses such as Bunyamvera orthobunyavirus [25]. When coining new virus names, the ICTV plant virus Study Groups have always been careful to avoid redundancies between virus names and genus names and, as a result, the proposed binomial species names would lead to very few problems with plant viruses [11, 14, 15].

When the proposal was first made in 1998, most members of the ICTV Executive Board who actually were not plant virologists, were opposed to the introduction of non-Latinized binomial species names [10]. By 2004, half the ICTV Executive Board no longer objected to the system, but when asked about their opinion on binomial names, only a minority of the 80 Study Groups responded [26]. Although in the past, the ICTV often has ratified decisions by accepting that a no answer vote was a vote in favor, this practice was not followed in this case. Surveys conducted in 2002 among laboratory virologists showed that more than 80% of those who responded were in favor of the binomial system [10, 12, 15, 27].

Species names in biology are never abbreviated in the form of acronyms. Since virus species names are used sparingly, they also do not deserve abbreviations. Abbreviations are useful for virus names but these are not affected by the present proposal. Although the ICTV is not responsible for devising appropriate abbreviations, it has published several lists of recommended virus name abbreviations [28, 29, 30, 31]. Although one list [31] refers to abbreviations of virus species, these recommendations do all pertain to abbreviations of virus names.

Some non-Latinized binomial species names for vertebrate viruses are shown in Table 1. Many examples of possible binomial species names together with the unchanged current virus names are provided as a guideline in Table 2. In this list, the species names are grouped by family and genus. All family, genus and species names are written in italics. Unchanged virus names are written in Roman without capitals except for proper names. This list compiled by Claude Fauquet does not include all the species, genera and families presently recognized by the ICTV since the list only serves to illustrate that the binomial system is widely applicable. Although in many cases such as the ssRNA plant viruses these species names will not be controversial, in a limited number of cases the relevant ICTV Study Groups will have to decide which binomial species names should be adopted.
Table 1

Examples of non-Latinized binomial species names for vertebrate viruses

Virus name

Binomial species name

California encephalitis virus

California encephalitis orthobunyavirus

hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis A hepatovirus

hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus

hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C hepacivirus

hepatitis E virus

Hepatitis E hepevirus

lassa virus

Lassa arenavirus

louping ill virus

Louping ill flavivirus

measles virus

Measles morbillivirus

mumps virus

Mumps rubulavirus

rabies virus

Rabies lyssavirus

rubella virus

Rubella rubivirus

sendai virus

Sendai respirovirus

Sindbis virus

Sindbis alphavirus

Sin Nombre virus

Sin Nombre hantavirus

West Nile virus

West Nile flavivirus

Table 2

Examples of possible virus non-Latinized binomial species names

Species name

Unchanged virus name

The dsDNA viruses

Family: Tectiviridae

 

–genusTectivirus

 

Enterobacteria PRD1 tectivirus

enterobacteria phage PRD1

Family: Corticoviridae

 

–genusCorticovirus

 

Pseudoalteromonas PM2 corticovirus

pseudoalteromonas phage PM2

Family: Plasmaviridae

 

–genusPlasmavirus

 

Acholeplasma L2 plasmavirus

acholeplasma phage L2

Family: Lipothrixviridae

 

–genusAlphalipothrixvirus

 

Thermoproteus tenax1 alphalipothrixvirus

thermoproteus tenax virus 1

Family: Rudiviridae

 

–genusRudivirus

 

Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped 2 rudivirus

sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2

Family: Fuselloviridae

 

–genusFusellovirus

 

Sulfolobus spindle-shaped 1 fusellovirus

sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1

Family: Poxviridae

 

–genusOrthopoxvirus

 

Vaccinia orthopoxvirus

vaccinia virus

Ectromelia orthopoxvirus

ectromelia virus

Variola orthopoxvirus

variola virus

–genusParapoxvirus

 

Orf parapoxvirus

orf virus

–genusAvipoxvirus

 

Fowlpox avipoxvirus

fowlpox virus

Turkeypox avipoxvirus

turkeypox virus

–genusCapripoxvirus

 

Sheeppox capripoxvirus

sheeppox virus

Lumpy skin disease capripoxvirus

lumpy skin disease virus

–genusLeporipoxvirus

 

Myxoma leporipoxvirus

myxoma virus

Rabbit fibroma leporipoxvirus

rabbit fibroma virus

–genusSuipoxvirus

 

Swinepox suipoxvirus

swinepox virus

–genusMolluscipoxvirus

 

Molluscum contagiosum molluscipoxvirus

molluscum contagiosum virus

–genusYatapoxvirus

 

Yaba monkey tumor yatapoxvirus

Yaba monkey tumor virus

–genusAlphaentomopoxvirus

 

Melolontha melolontha alphaentomopoxvirus

melolontha melolontha entomopoxvirus

–genusBetaentomopoxvirus

 

Amsacta moorei betaentomopoxvirus

amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus

–genusGammaentomopoxvirus

 

Chironomus luridus gammaentomopoxvirus

chironomus luridus entomopoxvirus

Family: Asfarviridae

 

–genusAsfivirus

 

African swine fever asfivirus

African swine fever virus

Family: Iridoviridae

 

–genusIridovirus

 

Invertebrate iridescent 6 iridovirus

invertebrate iridescent virus 6

–genusChloriridovirus

 

Invertebrate iridescent 3 chloriridovirus

invertebrate iridescent virus 3

–genusRanavirus

 

Frog 3 ranavirus

frog virus 3

–genusLymphocystivirus

 

Lymphocystis disease 1 lymphocystivirus

lymphocystis disease virus 1

Family: Phycodnaviridae

 

–genusChlorovirus

 

Paramecium bursaria Chlorella 1 chlorovirus

paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1

–genusPrasinovirus

 

Micromonas pusilla SP prasinovirus

micromonas pusilla virus SP

–genusPhaeovirus

 

Ectocarpus siliculosus 1 phaeovirus

ectocarpus siliculosus virus 1

Family: Baculoviridae

 

–genusGranulovirus

 

Cydia pomonella granulovirus

cydia pomonella granulovirus

Family: Herpesviridae

 

–genusSimplexvirus

 

Human herpes 1 simplexvirus

human herpesvirus 1

–genusVaricellovirus

 

Human herpes 3 varicellovirus

human herpesvirus 3

–genusCytomegalovirus

 

Human herpes 5 cytomegalovirus

human herpesvirus 5

–genusMuromegalovirus

 

Murid herpes 1 muromegalovirus

murid herpesvirus 1

–genusRoseolovirus

 

Human herpes 6 roseoloviru

human herpesvirus 6

–genusLymphocryptovirus

 

Human herpes 4 lymphocryptovirus

human herpesvirus 4

–genusRhadinovirus

 

Saimiriine herpes 2 rhadinovirus

saimiriine herpesvirus 2

–genusIctalurivirus

 

Ictalurid herpes 1 ictalurivirus

ictalurid herpesvirus 1

Family: Adenoviridae

 

–genusMastadenovirus

 

Human adeno C mastadenovirus

human adenovirus C

–genusAviadenovirus

 

Fowl adeno A aviadenovirus

fowl adenovirus A

–genusRhizidiovirus

 

Rhizidiomyces rhizidiovirus

rhizidiomyces virus

Family: Polyomaviridae

 

–genusPolyomavirus

 

Simian 40 polyomavirus

simian virus 40

Family: Papillomaviridae

 

–genusAlphapapillomavirus

 

Human papilloma 32 alphapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 32

–genusBetapapillomavirus

 

Human papilloma 5 betapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 5

–genusGammapapillomavirus

 

Human papilloma 4 gammapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 4

Family: Polydnaviridae

 

–genusBracovirus

 

Cotesia melanoscela bracovirus

cotesia melanoscela bracovirus

–genusIcnovirus

 

Campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus

campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus

Family: Ascoviridae

 

–genusAscovirus

 

Spodoptera frugiperda asco 1a ascovirus

spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus 1a

The ssDNA viruses

Family: Inoviridae

 

genus Inovirus

 

Enterobacteria M13 inovirus

enterobacteria phage M13

Enterobacteria X-2 inovirus

enterobacteria phage X-2

Enterobacteria C-2 inovirus

enterobacteria phage C-2

Enterobacteria SF inovirus

enterobacteria phage SF

Vibrio CTX inovirus

vibrio phage CTX

Vibrio VSK inovirus

vibrio phage VSK

Pseudomonas Pf1 inovirus

pseudomonas phage Pf1

Xanthomonas Cf16 inovirus

xanthomonas phage Cf16

Xanthomonas Xf inovirus

xanthomonas phage Xf

genus Plectrovirus

 

Acholeplasma L51 plectrovirus

acholeplasma phage L51

Spiroplasma 1-KC3 plectrovirus

spiroplasma phage 1-KC3

genus Microvirus

 

Enterobacteria phiX 174microvirus

enterobacteria phage phiX 174

genus spiromicrovirus

 

Spiroplasma 4spiromicrovirus

spiroplasma phage 4

genus Bdellomicrovirus

 

Bdellovibrio MAC 1bdellomicrovirus

bdellovibrio phage MAC 1

genus Chlamydiamicrovirus

 

Chlamydia 1 chlamydiamicrovirus

chlamydia phage 1

Family: Geminiviridae

 

genusMastervirus

 

Maize streak mastrevirus

maize streak virus

Sugarcane streak mastrevirus

sugarcane streak virus

Tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus

tobacco yellow dwarf virus

–genus Curtovirus

 

Beet curly top curtovirus

beet curly top virus

genusTopocuvirus

 

Tomato pseudo-curly top topocuvirus

tomato pseudo-curly top virus

–genusBegomovirus

 

Bean golden mosaic begomovirus

bean golden mosaic virus

Cowpea golden mosaic begomovirus

cowpea golden mosaic virus

Mungbean yellow mosaic begomovirus

mungbean yellow mosaic virus

Squash leaf curl begomovirus

squash leaf curl virus

Tomato leaf curl begomovirus

tomato leaf curl virus

Tomato mottle begomovirus

tomato mottle virus

Family: Circoviridae

 

–genusCircovirus

 

Beak and feather disease circovirus

beak and feather disease virus

Porcine 1 circovirus

porcine circovirus 1

–genusGyrovirus

 

Chicken anemia gyrovirus

chicken anemia virus

Family: Nanoviridae

 

–genusBabuvirus

 

Banana bunchy top babuvirus

banana bunchy top virus

–genusNanovirus

 

Subterranean clover stunt nanovirus

subterranean clover stunt virus

Family: Parvoviridae

 

–genusParvovirus

 

Mice minute parvovirus

minute virus of mice

Feline panleukopenia parvovirus

feline panleukopenia virus

–genusErythrovirus

 

Human parvo B19 erythrovirus

human parvovirus B19

–genusDependovirus

 

Adeno-associated 2 dependovirus

adeno-associated virus 2

Avian adeno-associated dependovirus

avian adeno-associated virus

–genusDensovirus

 

Junonia coenia densovirus

junonia coenia densovirus

–genusIteravirus

 

Bombyx mori iteravirus

bombyx mori densovirus

–genusBrevidensovirus

 

Aedes aegypti brevidensovirus

aedes aegypti densovirus

–genusAmdovirus

 

Aleutian mink disease amdovirus

Aleutian mink disease virus

–genusBocavirus

 

Bovine parvo bocavirus

bovine parvovirus

–genusPefudensovirus

 

Periplaneta fuliginosa pefudensovirus

periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus

Family: Anelloviridae

 

–genusAlphatorquevirus

 

Torque teno 1 alphatorquevirus

torque teno virus 1

Retrotranscribing DNA and RNA viruses

Family: Hepadnaviridae

 

–genusOrthohepadnavirus

 

Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus

hepatitis B virus

–genusAvihepadnavirus

 

Duck hepatitis B avihepadnavirus

duck hepatitis B virus

Family: Caulimoviridae

 

–genusCaulimovirus

 

Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus

cauliflower mosaic virus

Mirabilis mosaic caulimovirus

mirabilis mosaic virus

–genusPetuvirus

 

Petunia vein clearing petuvirus

petunia vein clearing virus

–genusSoymovirus

 

Soybean chlorotic mottle soymovirus

soybean chlorotic mottle virus

–genusCavemovirus

 

Cassava vein mosaic cavemovirus

cassava vein mosaic virus

–genusBadnavirus

 

Banana streak badnavirus

banana streak virus

Commelina yellow mottle badnavirus

commelina yellow mottle virus

–genusTungrovirus

 

Rice tungro bacilliform tungrovirus

rice tungro bacilliform virus

Family: Pseudoviridae

 

–genusPseudovirus

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 pseudovirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus Ty1

–genusHemivirus

 

Drosophila melanogaster copia hemivirus

drosophila melanogaster copia virus

Family: Metaviridae

 

–genusMetavirus

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty3 metavirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus Ty3

–genusErrantivirus

 

Drosophila melanogaster gypsy errantivirus

drosophila melanogaster gypsy virus

Family: Retroviridae

 

–genusAlpharetrovirus

 

Avian leukosis alpharetrovirus

avian leukosis virus

–genusBetaretrovirus

 

Mouse mammary tumor betaretrovirus

mouse mammary tumor virus

–genusGammaretrovirus

 

Murine leukemia gammaretrovirus

murine leukemia virus

–genusDeltaretrovirus

 

Bovine leukemia deltaretrovirus

bovine leukemia virus

–genusEpsilonretrovirus

 

Walleye dermal sarcoma epsilonretrovirus

walleye dermal sarcoma virus

–genusLentivirus

 

Human immunodeficiency 1lentivirus

human immunodeficiency virus 1

Human immunodeficiency 2lentivirus

human immunodeficiency virus 2

Simian immunodeficiency lentivirus

simian immunodeficiency virus

–genusSpumaretrovirus

 

Simian foamy spumaretrovirus

simian foamy virus

The dsRNA viruses

Family: Cystoviridae

 

–genusCystovirus

 

Pseudomonas phi6cystovirus

pseudomonas phage phi6

Family: Reoviridae

 

–genusOrbivirus

 

African horse sickness orbivirus

African horse sickness virus

Bluetongue orbivirus

bluetongue virus 1

–genusRotavirus

 

Rota A rotavirus

rotavirus.A

Simian SA 11 rotavirus

simian rotavirus SA 11

–genusColtivirus

 

Colorado tick fever coltivirus

Colorado tick fever virus

–genusAquareovirus

 

Aquareo A aquariovirus

aquareovirus A

–genusCypovirus

 

Cypo 1, Cypovirus

Cypovirus 1

–genusFijivirus

 

Fiji disease fijivirus

Fiji disease virus

Garlic dwarf fijivirus

garlic dwarf virus

–genusPhytoreovirus

 

Wound tumor phytoreovirus

wound tumor virus

–genusOryzavirus

 

Rice ragged stunt oryzavirus

rice ragged stunt virus

Family: Birnaviridae

 

–genusAquabirnavirus

 

Infectious pancreatic necrosis aquabirnavirus

infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

–genusAvibirnavirus

 

Infectious bursal disease avibirnavirus

infectious bursal disease virus

–genusEntomobirnavirus

 

Drosophila X entomobirnavirus

drosophila X virus

Family: Totiviridae

 

–genusTotivirus

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-A totivirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A

–genusGiardiavirus

 

Giardia lamblia giardiavirus

giardia lamblia virus

–genusLeishmaniavirus

 

Leishmania RNA 11 leishmaniavirus

leishmania RNA virus 1–1

Family: Hypoviridae

 

–genusHypovirus

 

Cryphonectria hypo 1hypovirus

cryphonectria hypovirus 1

Family: Chrysoviridae

 

genus Chrysovirus

 

Penicillium chrysogenum chrysovirus

penicillium chrysogenum virus

Family: Partitiviridae

 

–genusPartitivirus

 

Atkinsonella hypoxylon partitivirus

atkinsonella hypoxylon virus

–genusAlphacryptovirus

 

White clover cryptic 1 alphacryptovirus

white clover cryptic virus 1

–genusBetacryptovirus

 

White clover cryptic 2 betacryptovirus

white clover cryptic virus 2

The negative sense ssRNA viruses

Family: Bornaviridae

 

–genusBornavirus

 

Borna disease bornavirus

borna disease virus

Family: Filoviridae

 

–genusMarburgvirus

 

Marburg marburgvirus

Marburg virus

–genusEbolavirus

 

Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus

Family: Paramyxoviridae

 

–genusRespirovirus

 

Human parainfluenza 1 respirovirus

human parainfluenza virus 1

Sendai respirovirus

Sendai virus

–genusRubulavirus

 

Mumps rubulavirus

mumps virus

Simian 5 rubulavirus

simian virus 5

–genusAvulavirus

 

Newcastle disease avulavirus

Newcastle disease virus

–genusMorbillivirus

 

Measles morbillivirus

measles virus

Rinderpest morbillivirus

Rinderpest virus

–genusHenipavirus

 

Hendra henipavirus

Hendra virus

–genusPneumovirus

 

Human respiratory syncytial pneumovirus

human respiratory syncytial virus

Family: Rhabdoviridae

 

–genusVesiculovirus

 

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus

–genusLyssavirus

 

Rabies lyssavirus

rabies virus

–genusEphemerovirus

 

Bovine ephemeral fever ephemerovirus

bovine ephemeral fever virus

–genusCytorhabdovirus

 

Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

lettuce necrotic yellows virus

–genusNucleorhabdovirus

 

Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

potato yellow dwarf virus

Family: Orthomyxoviridae

 

–genusAlphainfluenzavirus

 

Influenza A alphainfluenzavirus

influenza virus A

–genusBetainfluenzavirus

 

Influenza B betainfluenzavirus

influenza virus B

–genusGammainfluenzavirus

 

Influenza C gammainfluenzavirus

influenza virus C

–genusThogotovirus

 

Thogoto thogotovirus

Thogoto virus

–genusIsavirus

 

Infectious salmon anemia isavirus

infectious salmon anemia virus

Family: Bunyaviridae

 

–genusOrthobunyavirus

 

Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus

Bunyamwera virus

–genusHantavirus

 

Hantaanhantavirus

Hantaan virus

Sin Nombre hantavirus

Sin Nombre virus

–genusNairovirus

 

Dugbe nairovirus

Dugbe virus

–genusPhlebovirus

 

Rift Valley fever phlebovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

–genusTospovirus

 

Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus

tomato spotted wilt virus

Family: Arenaviridae

 

–genusArenavirus

 

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis arenavirus

lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

Unassigned Family

 

–genusTenuivirus

 

Rice stripe tenuivirus

rice stripe virus

Unassigned genus

 

–genusVaricosavirus

 

Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus

lettuce big-vein associated virus

The positive sense ssRNA viruses

Family: Leviviridae

 

–genusLevivirus

 

Enterobacteria BZ13levivirus

enterobacteria phage BZ13

Family: Narnaviridae

 

–genusNarnavirus

 

Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus

saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus

–genusMitovirus

 

Cryphonectria 1 mitovirus

cryphonectria mitovirus 1

Family: Picornaviridae

 

–genusEnterovirus

 

Human polio 1enterovirus

human poliovirus 1

–genusCardiovirus

 

Encephalomyocarditis cardiovirus

encephalomyocarditis virus

–genusAphthovirus

 

Foot-and-mouth disease aphthovirus

foot-and-mouth disease virus

–genusHepatovirus

 

Hepatitis A hepatovirus

hepatitis virus A

–genusParechovirus

 

Human parecho parechovirus

human parechovirus 1

–genusErbovirus

 

Equine rhinitis B erbovirus

equine rhinitis B virus

–genusKobuvirus

 

Aichi kobuvirus

Aichi virus

–genusTeschovirus

 

Porcine tescho teschovirus

porcine teschovirus 1

Family: Dicistroviridae

 

–genusCripavirus

 

Cricket paralysis cripavirus

cricket paralysis virus

Family: Sequiviridae

 

–genusSequivirus

 

Parsnip yellow fleck sequivirus

parsnip yellow fleck virus

Family: Comoviridae

 

–genusComovirus

 

Cowpea mosaic comovirus

cowpea mosaic virus

Squash mosaic comovirus

squash mosaic virus

–genusFabavirus

 

Broad bean wilt 1 fabavirus

broad bean wilt virus 1

–genusNepovirus

 

Arabis mosaic nepovirus

arabis mosaic virus

Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus

grapevine fanleaf virus

Tobacco ringspot nepovirus

tobacco ringspot virus

Tomato black ring nepovirus

tomato black ring virus

Family: Potyviridae

 

–genusPotyvirus

 

Potato Y potyvirus

potato virus Y

Bean common mosaic potyvirus

bean common mosaic virus

Henbane mosaic potyvirus

henbane mosaic virus

Johnsongrass mosaic potyvirus

johnsongrass mosaic virus

Lettuce mosaic potyvirus

lettuce mosaic virus

Papaya ringspot potyvirus

papaya ringspot virus

Plum pox potyvirus

plum pox virus

Sugarcane mosaic potyvirus

sugarcane mosaic virus

Tobacco etch potyvirus

tobacco etch virus

Watermelon mosaic potyvirus

watermelon mosaic virus

–genusIpomovirus

 

Sweet potato mild mottle ipomovirus

sweet potato mild mottle virus

–genusMacluravirus

 

Maclura mosaic macluravirus

maclura mosaic virus

–genusRymovirus

 

Ryegrass mosaic rymovirus

ryegrass mosaic virus

–genusTritimovirus

 

Wheat streak mosaic tritimovirus

wheat streak mosaic virus

–genusBymovirus

 

Barley yellow mosaic bymovirus

barley yellow mosaic virus

Family: Caliciviridae

 

–genusLagovirus

 

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease lagovirus

rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

–genusNorovirus

 

Norwalk norovirus

Norwalk virus

–genusSapovirus

 

Sapporo sapovirus

Sapporo virus

–genusVesivirus

 

Swine vesicular exanthema vesivirus

swine vesicular exanthema virus

Family: Astroviridae

 

–genusMamastrovirus

 

Human astro mamastrovirus

human astrovirus 1

Family: Nodaviridae

 

–genusAlphanodavirus

 

Flock House alphanodavirus

Flock House virus

Family: Tetraviridae

 

–genusBetatetravirus

 

Trichoplusia ni betatetravirus

trichoplusia ni virus

–genusOmegatetravirus

 

Helicoverpa armigera stunt omegatetravirus

helicoverpa armigera stunt virus

Family: Luteoviridae

 

–genusLuteovirus

 

Barley yellow dwarf MAVluteovirus

barley yellow dwarf MAV virus

–genusPolerovirus

 

Potato leafroll polerovirus

potato leafroll virus

–genusEnamovirus

 

Pea enation mosaic 1 enamovirus

pea enation mosaic virus 1

Family: Tombusviridae

 

–genusCarmovirus

 

Carnation mottle carmovirus

carnation mottle virus

–genusDianthovirus

 

Carnation ringspot dianthovirus

carnation ringspot virus

–genusMachlomovirus

 

Maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus

maize chlorotic mottle virus

–genusNecrovirus

 

Tobacco necrosis A necrovirus

tobacco necrosis virus A

–genusPanicovirus

 

Panicum mosaic panicovirus

panicum mosaic virus

–genusTombusvirus

 

Cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus

cymbidium ringspot virus

Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus

tomato bushy stunt virus

Family: Coronaviridae

 

–genusBafinivirus

 

White Bream bafinivirus

white bream virus

–genusTorovirus

 

Equine toro torovirus

equine torovirus

Family: Arteriviridae

 

–genusArterivirus

 

Equine arteritis arterivirus

equine arteritis virus

Family: Flaviviridae

 

–genusFlavivirus

 

Louping ill flavivirus

louping ill virus

Dengue flavivirus

dengue virus 1

St. Louis encephalitis flavivirus

St. Louis encephalitis virus

West Nile flavivirus

West Nile virus

Yellow fever flavivirus

yellow fever virus

–genusPestivirus

 

Bovine viral diarrhea 1 pestivirus

bovine viral diarrhea virus 1

–genusHepacivirus

 

Hepatitis C hepacivirus

hepatitis virus C

Family: Togavirivae

 

–genusAlphavirus

 

Chikungunya alphavirus

chikungunya virus

Semliki Forest alphavirus

Semliki Forest virus

Sindbis alphavirus

Sindbis virus

Western equine encephalitis alphavirus

western equine encephalitis virus

–genusRubivirus

 

Rubella rubivirus

rubella virus

Family: Bromoviridae

 

–genusAlfamovirus

 

Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus

Alfalfa mosaic virus

–genusBromovirus

 

Brome mosaic bromovirus

brome mosaic virus

Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus

cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

–genusCucumovirus

 

Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus

cucumber mosaic virus

Peanut stunt cucumovirus

peanut stunt virus

–genusIlarvirus

 

Apple mosaic ilarvirus

apple mosaic virus

Hydrangea mosaic ilarvirus

hydrangea mosaic virus

Prune dwarf ilarvirus

prune dwarf virus

Tobacco streak ilarvirus

tobacco streak virus

–genusOleavirus

 

Olive latent 2 oleavirus

olive latent virus 2

Family: Closteroviridae

 

–genusAmpelovirus

 

Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 ampelovirus

grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

–genusClosterovirus

 

Citrus tristeza closterovirus

citrus tristeza virus

–genusCrinivirus

 

Lettuce chlorosis crinivirus

lettuce chlorosis virus

Family: Tymoviridae

 

–genusTymovirus

 

Okra mosaic tymovirus

okra mosaic virus

Turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus

turnip yellow mosaic virus

Wild cucumber mosaic tymovirus

wild cucumber mosaic virus

–genusMaculavirus

 

Grapevine fleck maculavirus

grapevine fleck virus

–genusMarafivirus

 

Maize rayado fino marafivirus

maize rayado fino virus

Family: Alphaflexiviridae

 

–genusPotexvirus

 

Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus

cymbidium mosaic virus

Hydrangea ringspot potexvirus

hydrangea ringspot virus

Papaya mosaic potexvirus

papaya mosaic virus

Potato X potexvirus

potato virus X

White clover mosaic potexvirus

white clover mosaic virus

–genusAllexivirus

 

Shallot X allexivirus

shallot virus X

Family: Betaflexiviridae

 

–genusFoveavirus

 

Apple stem pitting foveavirus

apple stem pitting virus

–genusCarlavirus

 

Carnation latent carlavirus

carnation latent virus

Hop mosaic carlavirus

hop mosaic virus

Pea streak carlavirus

pea streak virus

Potato S carlavirus

potato virus S

–genusCapillovirus

 

Apple stem grooving capillovirus

apple stem grooving virus

–genusVitivirus

 

Grapevine A vitivirus

grapevine virus A

–genusTrichovirus

 

Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus

apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

Family: Virgaviridae

 

–genusTobamovirus

 

Odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus

odontoglossum ringspot virus

Ribgrass mosaic tobamovirus

ribgrass mosaic virus

Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus

tobacco mosaic virus

Tomato mosaic tobamovirus

tomato mosaic virus

Cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus

cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

–genusTobravirus

 

Tobacco rattle tobravirus

tobacco rattle virus

–genusHordeivirus

 

Barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus

barley stripe mosaic virus

–genusFurovirus

 

Soil-borne wheat mosaic furovirus

soil-borne wheat mosaic virus

–genusPomovirus

 

Potato mop-top pomovirus

potato mop-top virus

–genusPecluvirus

 

Peanut clump pecluvirus

peanut clump virus

Unassigned Family

 

–genusBenyvirus

 

Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus

beet necrotic yellow vein virus

–genusOurmiavirus

 

Ourmia melon ourmiavirus

ourmia melon virus

–genusIdaeovirus

 

Raspberry bushy dwarf idaeovirus

raspberry bushy dwarf virus

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
    • 1
  • Donald S. Burke
    • 2
  • Charles H. Calisher
    • 3
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
    • 4
  • Claude M. Fauquet
    • 5
  • Said A. Ghabrial
    • 6
  • Peter B. Jahrling
    • 7
  • Karl M. Johnson
    • 8
  • Michael R. Holbrook
    • 7
  • Marian C. Horzinek
    • 9
  • Günther M. Keil
    • 10
  • Jens H. Kuhn
    • 7
    • 11
  • Brian W. J. Mahy
    • 12
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
    • 13
  • Craig Pringle
    • 14
  • Edward P. Rybicki
    • 15
  • Tim Skern
    • 16
  • Robert B. Tesh
    • 17
  • Victoria Wahl-Jensen
    • 7
    • 11
  • Peter J. Walker
    • 18
  • Scott C. Weaver
    • 17
  1. 1.Institut de Recherche de l’Ecole de Biotechnologie de StrasbourgBoulevard Sébastien BrantIllkirch CedexFrance
  2. 2.Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  4. 4.DEEDI, Queensland Agricultural Biotechnology CentreThe University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  5. 5.ILTAB, Danforth Plant Science CenterSt LouisUSA
  6. 6.Plant Pathology DepartmentUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  7. 7.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick)NIAID, NIHFort DetrickUSA
  8. 8.Special Pathogens, Centers for Disease Control (retired)PlacitasUSA
  9. 9.Spes NostraBilthovenThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Friedrich-Loeffler-InstitutFederal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  11. 11.Tunnell Consulting Inc.King of PrussiaUSA
  12. 12.NCEZID, CDCAtlantaUSA
  13. 13.Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia ApplicataBariItaly
  14. 14.Biological SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  15. 15.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  16. 16.Max F. Perutz LaboratoriesMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  17. 17.Department of PathologyUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  18. 18.CSIRO Livestock IndustriesAustralian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL)GeelongAustralia

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