Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 11, pp 1909–1919

A proposal to change existing virus species names to non-Latinized binomials

  • Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
  • Donald S. Burke
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Claude M. Fauquet
  • Said A. Ghabrial
  • Peter B. Jahrling
  • Karl M. Johnson
  • Michael R. Holbrook
  • Marian C. Horzinek
  • Günther M. Keil
  • Jens H. Kuhn
  • Brian W. J. Mahy
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
  • Craig Pringle
  • Edward P. Rybicki
  • Tim Skern
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Victoria Wahl-Jensen
  • Peter J. Walker
  • Scott C. Weaver
Virology Division News

DOI: 10.1007/s00705-010-0831-9

Cite this article as:
Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Burke, D.S., Calisher, C.H. et al. Arch Virol (2010) 155: 1909. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0831-9


A proposal has been posted on the ICTV website (2011.001aG.N.v1.binomial_sp_names) to replace virus species names by non-Latinized binomial names consisting of the current italicized species name with the terminal word “virus” replaced by the italicized and non-capitalized genus name to which the species belongs. If implemented, the current italicized species name Measles virus, for instance, would become Measles morbillivirus while the current virus name measles virus and its abbreviation MeV would remain unchanged. The rationale for the proposed change is presented.


The current species names approved by the ICTV are written in italics and capitalized but are otherwise the same as the English vernacular names of viruses written in Roman. This has resulted in considerable confusion among virologists who must differentiate in their writing, only on the basis of typography, between a species (a taxonomic construct created by taxonomists) and a virus (a molecular genetic parasite usually causing a disease) [1, 2, 3, 4].

It is important not to confuse a virus species (which is a taxonomic construct or concept which does not have a sequence and cannot be isolated, transmitted to a host or otherwise manipulated) with a virus (a physical entity) that can be isolated and manipulated experimentally and always exists in the form of many mutants, variants and strains possessing different genome sequences. For the same reason, other taxonomic constructs such as a family or a genus also cannot be transmitted to a host or be sequenced. It is incorrect to write, as is often done, that the species Measles virus (italics) or Cucumber mosaic virus (italics) has been isolated, transmitted to a host or sequenced.

In biology, many animals, plants and microorganisms do not have vernacular names in English or other languages. As a result scientists will write that Escherichia coli (the italicized species name) has been infected by a bacterial virus, falsely implying that a taxonomic entity could be infected. In virology this undesirable practice can be avoided since all viruses have vernacular names and these names (in Roman) can therefore be used if one wants to refer to the infectious agent rather than to the species into which it has been placed. Unfortunately at present many virologists do not use available correct typography and write that a virus species (italicized typography) can be transmitted or sequenced [5].

Rationale for introducing non-Latinized binomial species names

Binomial Latin names have been proposed for virus species [6, 7] although virologists have traditionally been opposed to the introduction of Latin names [8, 9, 10]. This would require the creation of new Latin names for more than 2,000 virus species and reaching agreement on such names is unlikely to be easy [11]. In contrast, introducing non-Latinized binomial species names would be simple since they are obtained by combining existing English virus names with accepted genus names without involving the creation of new names.

Very few virus species are not yet assigned to a genus and are therefore excluded from the proposed system [12]. Only in a small number of cases will it be necessary to change existing genus names, mostly because these names do not follow the ICTV rule that genus names must end in “virus” [13, 14, 15]. For instance the species Enterobacteria phage T1 is currently placed in a genus called “T1-like viruses” in the family Siphoviridae and a proper genus name would have to be introduced to make the binomial system applicable. However, the need to create proper genus names in such cases is already recognized by the ICTV. In the case of bacterial viruses, the word “phage” could be deleted from the species name altogether. For instance, the virus enterobacteria phage M13 which is a member of the genus Inovirus could be placed into a species with the name Enterobacteria M13 inovirus.

Since the species name, which is written in italics with a capital initial, would be obtained by replacing the terminal word “virus” in the virus name with the genus name to which the species belongs, it would be appropriate to have species names such as Human papilloma 32 alphapapillomavirus and Influenza A alphainfluenzavirus. If the species name contains “-virus” as a suffix as in Rotavirus A, the suffix can be removed to avoid repeating “virus” twice in the binomial species name which then becomes Rota A rotavirus. Such word repetition is also frequent in the species names of organisms, for instance Rattus rattus (roof rat), Ciconia ciconia (white stork) and Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western Lowland Gorilla).

The current proposal does not aim to provide a solution for these cases which should be addressed by the relevant ICTV Study Groups, once the principle of binomial species names has been accepted. However, these few problems are not a valid reason for rejecting the proposal.

Adopting the proposed binomial species names implies that a name change would have to occur when species are moved from one genus to another. However, by drawing attention to a new taxonomic placement this is probably a clarifying advantage rather than an alleged disadvantage [12]. Such changes are common in animal, plant and bacterial taxonomy.

Since all species names of animals, plants and microorganisms are binomials that always include a genus designation, virus species binomials will be easily recognizable as species names. The vernacular virus names in different languages (measles virus; virus de la rougeole; Masernvirus, etc.) will be recognized as virus names rather than species names and this will make it easier to distinguish between the two.

A major advantage of the proposed system is that inclusion of the genus affiliation in the species name indicates relationships with other viruses and provides additional information about the properties of members of the species. The advantage of a binomial name exists also when the genus affiliation appears at the end of the binomial species name instead of at the beginning. For instance, it would be immediately obvious that hepatitis A, B and C viruses are very different infectious agents belonging to different genera if the corresponding species names were Hepatitis A hepatovirus, Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus and Hepatitis C hepacivirus. Since all such binomial names for virus species end with the suffix -virus present in the genus name, they also clearly indicate that the names refer to viral entities. This is an advantage compared to the Latin names used in biology which do not indicate to the uninitiated whether the organism referred to is an animal, a plant or a microorganism.

The proposed binomial system is not a new idea. The system was used to index the viruses in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th ICTV reports published in 1976, 1979 and 1982, respectively [16, 17, 18], because the benefits of referring to entries like bluetongue orbivirus and West Nile flavivirus must have been obvious already at the time. In the 5th ICTV report published in 1991 [19] the binomials were retained only for the indexing of plant viruses. In the 6th ICTV report [20], the binomials were dropped altogether because certain animal virologists, for no declared reason, were opposed to their use. Binomial names for referring to viruses rather than to species have always been popular with plant virologists and they have been used in many books [21, 22, 23, 24]. Some animal virologists also find it helpful to use binomials to refer to viruses such as Bunyamvera orthobunyavirus [25]. When coining new virus names, the ICTV plant virus Study Groups have always been careful to avoid redundancies between virus names and genus names and, as a result, the proposed binomial species names would lead to very few problems with plant viruses [11, 14, 15].

When the proposal was first made in 1998, most members of the ICTV Executive Board who actually were not plant virologists, were opposed to the introduction of non-Latinized binomial species names [10]. By 2004, half the ICTV Executive Board no longer objected to the system, but when asked about their opinion on binomial names, only a minority of the 80 Study Groups responded [26]. Although in the past, the ICTV often has ratified decisions by accepting that a no answer vote was a vote in favor, this practice was not followed in this case. Surveys conducted in 2002 among laboratory virologists showed that more than 80% of those who responded were in favor of the binomial system [10, 12, 15, 27].

Species names in biology are never abbreviated in the form of acronyms. Since virus species names are used sparingly, they also do not deserve abbreviations. Abbreviations are useful for virus names but these are not affected by the present proposal. Although the ICTV is not responsible for devising appropriate abbreviations, it has published several lists of recommended virus name abbreviations [28, 29, 30, 31]. Although one list [31] refers to abbreviations of virus species, these recommendations do all pertain to abbreviations of virus names.

Some non-Latinized binomial species names for vertebrate viruses are shown in Table 1. Many examples of possible binomial species names together with the unchanged current virus names are provided as a guideline in Table 2. In this list, the species names are grouped by family and genus. All family, genus and species names are written in italics. Unchanged virus names are written in Roman without capitals except for proper names. This list compiled by Claude Fauquet does not include all the species, genera and families presently recognized by the ICTV since the list only serves to illustrate that the binomial system is widely applicable. Although in many cases such as the ssRNA plant viruses these species names will not be controversial, in a limited number of cases the relevant ICTV Study Groups will have to decide which binomial species names should be adopted.
Table 1

Examples of non-Latinized binomial species names for vertebrate viruses

Virus name

Binomial species name

California encephalitis virus

California encephalitis orthobunyavirus

hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis A hepatovirus

hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus

hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C hepacivirus

hepatitis E virus

Hepatitis E hepevirus

lassa virus

Lassa arenavirus

louping ill virus

Louping ill flavivirus

measles virus

Measles morbillivirus

mumps virus

Mumps rubulavirus

rabies virus

Rabies lyssavirus

rubella virus

Rubella rubivirus

sendai virus

Sendai respirovirus

Sindbis virus

Sindbis alphavirus

Sin Nombre virus

Sin Nombre hantavirus

West Nile virus

West Nile flavivirus

Table 2

Examples of possible virus non-Latinized binomial species names

Species name

Unchanged virus name

The dsDNA viruses

Family: Tectiviridae




Enterobacteria PRD1 tectivirus

enterobacteria phage PRD1

Family: Corticoviridae




Pseudoalteromonas PM2 corticovirus

pseudoalteromonas phage PM2

Family: Plasmaviridae




Acholeplasma L2 plasmavirus

acholeplasma phage L2

Family: Lipothrixviridae




Thermoproteus tenax1 alphalipothrixvirus

thermoproteus tenax virus 1

Family: Rudiviridae




Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped 2 rudivirus

sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2

Family: Fuselloviridae




Sulfolobus spindle-shaped 1 fusellovirus

sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1

Family: Poxviridae




Vaccinia orthopoxvirus

vaccinia virus

Ectromelia orthopoxvirus

ectromelia virus

Variola orthopoxvirus

variola virus



Orf parapoxvirus

orf virus



Fowlpox avipoxvirus

fowlpox virus

Turkeypox avipoxvirus

turkeypox virus



Sheeppox capripoxvirus

sheeppox virus

Lumpy skin disease capripoxvirus

lumpy skin disease virus



Myxoma leporipoxvirus

myxoma virus

Rabbit fibroma leporipoxvirus

rabbit fibroma virus



Swinepox suipoxvirus

swinepox virus



Molluscum contagiosum molluscipoxvirus

molluscum contagiosum virus



Yaba monkey tumor yatapoxvirus

Yaba monkey tumor virus



Melolontha melolontha alphaentomopoxvirus

melolontha melolontha entomopoxvirus



Amsacta moorei betaentomopoxvirus

amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus



Chironomus luridus gammaentomopoxvirus

chironomus luridus entomopoxvirus

Family: Asfarviridae




African swine fever asfivirus

African swine fever virus

Family: Iridoviridae




Invertebrate iridescent 6 iridovirus

invertebrate iridescent virus 6



Invertebrate iridescent 3 chloriridovirus

invertebrate iridescent virus 3



Frog 3 ranavirus

frog virus 3



Lymphocystis disease 1 lymphocystivirus

lymphocystis disease virus 1

Family: Phycodnaviridae




Paramecium bursaria Chlorella 1 chlorovirus

paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1



Micromonas pusilla SP prasinovirus

micromonas pusilla virus SP



Ectocarpus siliculosus 1 phaeovirus

ectocarpus siliculosus virus 1

Family: Baculoviridae




Cydia pomonella granulovirus

cydia pomonella granulovirus

Family: Herpesviridae




Human herpes 1 simplexvirus

human herpesvirus 1



Human herpes 3 varicellovirus

human herpesvirus 3



Human herpes 5 cytomegalovirus

human herpesvirus 5



Murid herpes 1 muromegalovirus

murid herpesvirus 1



Human herpes 6 roseoloviru

human herpesvirus 6



Human herpes 4 lymphocryptovirus

human herpesvirus 4



Saimiriine herpes 2 rhadinovirus

saimiriine herpesvirus 2



Ictalurid herpes 1 ictalurivirus

ictalurid herpesvirus 1

Family: Adenoviridae




Human adeno C mastadenovirus

human adenovirus C



Fowl adeno A aviadenovirus

fowl adenovirus A



Rhizidiomyces rhizidiovirus

rhizidiomyces virus

Family: Polyomaviridae




Simian 40 polyomavirus

simian virus 40

Family: Papillomaviridae




Human papilloma 32 alphapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 32



Human papilloma 5 betapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 5



Human papilloma 4 gammapapillomavirus

human papillomavirus 4

Family: Polydnaviridae




Cotesia melanoscela bracovirus

cotesia melanoscela bracovirus



Campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus

campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus

Family: Ascoviridae




Spodoptera frugiperda asco 1a ascovirus

spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus 1a

The ssDNA viruses

Family: Inoviridae


genus Inovirus


Enterobacteria M13 inovirus

enterobacteria phage M13

Enterobacteria X-2 inovirus

enterobacteria phage X-2

Enterobacteria C-2 inovirus

enterobacteria phage C-2

Enterobacteria SF inovirus

enterobacteria phage SF

Vibrio CTX inovirus

vibrio phage CTX

Vibrio VSK inovirus

vibrio phage VSK

Pseudomonas Pf1 inovirus

pseudomonas phage Pf1

Xanthomonas Cf16 inovirus

xanthomonas phage Cf16

Xanthomonas Xf inovirus

xanthomonas phage Xf

genus Plectrovirus


Acholeplasma L51 plectrovirus

acholeplasma phage L51

Spiroplasma 1-KC3 plectrovirus

spiroplasma phage 1-KC3

genus Microvirus


Enterobacteria phiX 174microvirus

enterobacteria phage phiX 174

genus spiromicrovirus


Spiroplasma 4spiromicrovirus

spiroplasma phage 4

genus Bdellomicrovirus


Bdellovibrio MAC 1bdellomicrovirus

bdellovibrio phage MAC 1

genus Chlamydiamicrovirus


Chlamydia 1 chlamydiamicrovirus

chlamydia phage 1

Family: Geminiviridae




Maize streak mastrevirus

maize streak virus

Sugarcane streak mastrevirus

sugarcane streak virus

Tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus

tobacco yellow dwarf virus

–genus Curtovirus


Beet curly top curtovirus

beet curly top virus



Tomato pseudo-curly top topocuvirus

tomato pseudo-curly top virus



Bean golden mosaic begomovirus

bean golden mosaic virus

Cowpea golden mosaic begomovirus

cowpea golden mosaic virus

Mungbean yellow mosaic begomovirus

mungbean yellow mosaic virus

Squash leaf curl begomovirus

squash leaf curl virus

Tomato leaf curl begomovirus

tomato leaf curl virus

Tomato mottle begomovirus

tomato mottle virus

Family: Circoviridae




Beak and feather disease circovirus

beak and feather disease virus

Porcine 1 circovirus

porcine circovirus 1



Chicken anemia gyrovirus

chicken anemia virus

Family: Nanoviridae




Banana bunchy top babuvirus

banana bunchy top virus



Subterranean clover stunt nanovirus

subterranean clover stunt virus

Family: Parvoviridae




Mice minute parvovirus

minute virus of mice

Feline panleukopenia parvovirus

feline panleukopenia virus



Human parvo B19 erythrovirus

human parvovirus B19



Adeno-associated 2 dependovirus

adeno-associated virus 2

Avian adeno-associated dependovirus

avian adeno-associated virus



Junonia coenia densovirus

junonia coenia densovirus



Bombyx mori iteravirus

bombyx mori densovirus



Aedes aegypti brevidensovirus

aedes aegypti densovirus



Aleutian mink disease amdovirus

Aleutian mink disease virus



Bovine parvo bocavirus

bovine parvovirus



Periplaneta fuliginosa pefudensovirus

periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus

Family: Anelloviridae




Torque teno 1 alphatorquevirus

torque teno virus 1

Retrotranscribing DNA and RNA viruses

Family: Hepadnaviridae




Hepatitis B orthohepadnavirus

hepatitis B virus



Duck hepatitis B avihepadnavirus

duck hepatitis B virus

Family: Caulimoviridae




Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus

cauliflower mosaic virus

Mirabilis mosaic caulimovirus

mirabilis mosaic virus



Petunia vein clearing petuvirus

petunia vein clearing virus



Soybean chlorotic mottle soymovirus

soybean chlorotic mottle virus



Cassava vein mosaic cavemovirus

cassava vein mosaic virus



Banana streak badnavirus

banana streak virus

Commelina yellow mottle badnavirus

commelina yellow mottle virus



Rice tungro bacilliform tungrovirus

rice tungro bacilliform virus

Family: Pseudoviridae




Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 pseudovirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus Ty1



Drosophila melanogaster copia hemivirus

drosophila melanogaster copia virus

Family: Metaviridae




Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty3 metavirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus Ty3



Drosophila melanogaster gypsy errantivirus

drosophila melanogaster gypsy virus

Family: Retroviridae




Avian leukosis alpharetrovirus

avian leukosis virus



Mouse mammary tumor betaretrovirus

mouse mammary tumor virus



Murine leukemia gammaretrovirus

murine leukemia virus



Bovine leukemia deltaretrovirus

bovine leukemia virus



Walleye dermal sarcoma epsilonretrovirus

walleye dermal sarcoma virus



Human immunodeficiency 1lentivirus

human immunodeficiency virus 1

Human immunodeficiency 2lentivirus

human immunodeficiency virus 2

Simian immunodeficiency lentivirus

simian immunodeficiency virus



Simian foamy spumaretrovirus

simian foamy virus

The dsRNA viruses

Family: Cystoviridae




Pseudomonas phi6cystovirus

pseudomonas phage phi6

Family: Reoviridae




African horse sickness orbivirus

African horse sickness virus

Bluetongue orbivirus

bluetongue virus 1



Rota A rotavirus


Simian SA 11 rotavirus

simian rotavirus SA 11



Colorado tick fever coltivirus

Colorado tick fever virus



Aquareo A aquariovirus

aquareovirus A



Cypo 1, Cypovirus

Cypovirus 1



Fiji disease fijivirus

Fiji disease virus

Garlic dwarf fijivirus

garlic dwarf virus



Wound tumor phytoreovirus

wound tumor virus



Rice ragged stunt oryzavirus

rice ragged stunt virus

Family: Birnaviridae




Infectious pancreatic necrosis aquabirnavirus

infectious pancreatic necrosis virus



Infectious bursal disease avibirnavirus

infectious bursal disease virus



Drosophila X entomobirnavirus

drosophila X virus

Family: Totiviridae




Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-A totivirus

saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A



Giardia lamblia giardiavirus

giardia lamblia virus



Leishmania RNA 11 leishmaniavirus

leishmania RNA virus 1–1

Family: Hypoviridae




Cryphonectria hypo 1hypovirus

cryphonectria hypovirus 1

Family: Chrysoviridae


genus Chrysovirus


Penicillium chrysogenum chrysovirus

penicillium chrysogenum virus

Family: Partitiviridae




Atkinsonella hypoxylon partitivirus

atkinsonella hypoxylon virus



White clover cryptic 1 alphacryptovirus

white clover cryptic virus 1



White clover cryptic 2 betacryptovirus

white clover cryptic virus 2

The negative sense ssRNA viruses

Family: Bornaviridae




Borna disease bornavirus

borna disease virus

Family: Filoviridae




Marburg marburgvirus

Marburg virus



Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus

Family: Paramyxoviridae




Human parainfluenza 1 respirovirus

human parainfluenza virus 1

Sendai respirovirus

Sendai virus



Mumps rubulavirus

mumps virus

Simian 5 rubulavirus

simian virus 5



Newcastle disease avulavirus

Newcastle disease virus



Measles morbillivirus

measles virus

Rinderpest morbillivirus

Rinderpest virus



Hendra henipavirus

Hendra virus



Human respiratory syncytial pneumovirus

human respiratory syncytial virus

Family: Rhabdoviridae




Vesicular stomatitis Indiana vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus



Rabies lyssavirus

rabies virus



Bovine ephemeral fever ephemerovirus

bovine ephemeral fever virus



Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

lettuce necrotic yellows virus



Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

potato yellow dwarf virus

Family: Orthomyxoviridae




Influenza A alphainfluenzavirus

influenza virus A



Influenza B betainfluenzavirus

influenza virus B



Influenza C gammainfluenzavirus

influenza virus C



Thogoto thogotovirus

Thogoto virus



Infectious salmon anemia isavirus

infectious salmon anemia virus

Family: Bunyaviridae




Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus

Bunyamwera virus




Hantaan virus

Sin Nombre hantavirus

Sin Nombre virus



Dugbe nairovirus

Dugbe virus



Rift Valley fever phlebovirus

Rift Valley fever virus



Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus

tomato spotted wilt virus

Family: Arenaviridae




Lymphocytic choriomeningitis arenavirus

lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

Unassigned Family




Rice stripe tenuivirus

rice stripe virus

Unassigned genus




Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus

lettuce big-vein associated virus

The positive sense ssRNA viruses

Family: Leviviridae




Enterobacteria BZ13levivirus

enterobacteria phage BZ13

Family: Narnaviridae




Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus

saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus



Cryphonectria 1 mitovirus

cryphonectria mitovirus 1

Family: Picornaviridae




Human polio 1enterovirus

human poliovirus 1



Encephalomyocarditis cardiovirus

encephalomyocarditis virus



Foot-and-mouth disease aphthovirus

foot-and-mouth disease virus



Hepatitis A hepatovirus

hepatitis virus A



Human parecho parechovirus

human parechovirus 1



Equine rhinitis B erbovirus

equine rhinitis B virus



Aichi kobuvirus

Aichi virus



Porcine tescho teschovirus

porcine teschovirus 1

Family: Dicistroviridae




Cricket paralysis cripavirus

cricket paralysis virus

Family: Sequiviridae




Parsnip yellow fleck sequivirus

parsnip yellow fleck virus

Family: Comoviridae




Cowpea mosaic comovirus

cowpea mosaic virus

Squash mosaic comovirus

squash mosaic virus



Broad bean wilt 1 fabavirus

broad bean wilt virus 1



Arabis mosaic nepovirus

arabis mosaic virus

Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus

grapevine fanleaf virus

Tobacco ringspot nepovirus

tobacco ringspot virus

Tomato black ring nepovirus

tomato black ring virus

Family: Potyviridae




Potato Y potyvirus

potato virus Y

Bean common mosaic potyvirus

bean common mosaic virus

Henbane mosaic potyvirus

henbane mosaic virus

Johnsongrass mosaic potyvirus

johnsongrass mosaic virus

Lettuce mosaic potyvirus

lettuce mosaic virus

Papaya ringspot potyvirus

papaya ringspot virus

Plum pox potyvirus

plum pox virus

Sugarcane mosaic potyvirus

sugarcane mosaic virus

Tobacco etch potyvirus

tobacco etch virus

Watermelon mosaic potyvirus

watermelon mosaic virus



Sweet potato mild mottle ipomovirus

sweet potato mild mottle virus



Maclura mosaic macluravirus

maclura mosaic virus



Ryegrass mosaic rymovirus

ryegrass mosaic virus



Wheat streak mosaic tritimovirus

wheat streak mosaic virus



Barley yellow mosaic bymovirus

barley yellow mosaic virus

Family: Caliciviridae




Rabbit hemorrhagic disease lagovirus

rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus



Norwalk norovirus

Norwalk virus



Sapporo sapovirus

Sapporo virus



Swine vesicular exanthema vesivirus

swine vesicular exanthema virus

Family: Astroviridae




Human astro mamastrovirus

human astrovirus 1

Family: Nodaviridae




Flock House alphanodavirus

Flock House virus

Family: Tetraviridae




Trichoplusia ni betatetravirus

trichoplusia ni virus



Helicoverpa armigera stunt omegatetravirus

helicoverpa armigera stunt virus

Family: Luteoviridae




Barley yellow dwarf MAVluteovirus

barley yellow dwarf MAV virus



Potato leafroll polerovirus

potato leafroll virus



Pea enation mosaic 1 enamovirus

pea enation mosaic virus 1

Family: Tombusviridae




Carnation mottle carmovirus

carnation mottle virus



Carnation ringspot dianthovirus

carnation ringspot virus



Maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus

maize chlorotic mottle virus



Tobacco necrosis A necrovirus

tobacco necrosis virus A



Panicum mosaic panicovirus

panicum mosaic virus



Cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus

cymbidium ringspot virus

Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus

tomato bushy stunt virus

Family: Coronaviridae




White Bream bafinivirus

white bream virus



Equine toro torovirus

equine torovirus

Family: Arteriviridae




Equine arteritis arterivirus

equine arteritis virus

Family: Flaviviridae




Louping ill flavivirus

louping ill virus

Dengue flavivirus

dengue virus 1

St. Louis encephalitis flavivirus

St. Louis encephalitis virus

West Nile flavivirus

West Nile virus

Yellow fever flavivirus

yellow fever virus



Bovine viral diarrhea 1 pestivirus

bovine viral diarrhea virus 1



Hepatitis C hepacivirus

hepatitis virus C

Family: Togavirivae




Chikungunya alphavirus

chikungunya virus

Semliki Forest alphavirus

Semliki Forest virus

Sindbis alphavirus

Sindbis virus

Western equine encephalitis alphavirus

western equine encephalitis virus



Rubella rubivirus

rubella virus

Family: Bromoviridae




Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus

Alfalfa mosaic virus



Brome mosaic bromovirus

brome mosaic virus

Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus

cowpea chlorotic mottle virus



Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus

cucumber mosaic virus

Peanut stunt cucumovirus

peanut stunt virus



Apple mosaic ilarvirus

apple mosaic virus

Hydrangea mosaic ilarvirus

hydrangea mosaic virus

Prune dwarf ilarvirus

prune dwarf virus

Tobacco streak ilarvirus

tobacco streak virus



Olive latent 2 oleavirus

olive latent virus 2

Family: Closteroviridae




Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 ampelovirus

grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3



Citrus tristeza closterovirus

citrus tristeza virus



Lettuce chlorosis crinivirus

lettuce chlorosis virus

Family: Tymoviridae




Okra mosaic tymovirus

okra mosaic virus

Turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus

turnip yellow mosaic virus

Wild cucumber mosaic tymovirus

wild cucumber mosaic virus



Grapevine fleck maculavirus

grapevine fleck virus



Maize rayado fino marafivirus

maize rayado fino virus

Family: Alphaflexiviridae




Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus

cymbidium mosaic virus

Hydrangea ringspot potexvirus

hydrangea ringspot virus

Papaya mosaic potexvirus

papaya mosaic virus

Potato X potexvirus

potato virus X

White clover mosaic potexvirus

white clover mosaic virus



Shallot X allexivirus

shallot virus X

Family: Betaflexiviridae




Apple stem pitting foveavirus

apple stem pitting virus



Carnation latent carlavirus

carnation latent virus

Hop mosaic carlavirus

hop mosaic virus

Pea streak carlavirus

pea streak virus

Potato S carlavirus

potato virus S



Apple stem grooving capillovirus

apple stem grooving virus



Grapevine A vitivirus

grapevine virus A



Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus

apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

Family: Virgaviridae




Odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus

odontoglossum ringspot virus

Ribgrass mosaic tobamovirus

ribgrass mosaic virus

Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus

tobacco mosaic virus

Tomato mosaic tobamovirus

tomato mosaic virus

Cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus

cucumber green mottle mosaic virus



Tobacco rattle tobravirus

tobacco rattle virus



Barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus

barley stripe mosaic virus



Soil-borne wheat mosaic furovirus

soil-borne wheat mosaic virus



Potato mop-top pomovirus

potato mop-top virus



Peanut clump pecluvirus

peanut clump virus

Unassigned Family




Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus

beet necrotic yellow vein virus



Ourmia melon ourmiavirus

ourmia melon virus



Raspberry bushy dwarf idaeovirus

raspberry bushy dwarf virus

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
    • 1
  • Donald S. Burke
    • 2
  • Charles H. Calisher
    • 3
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
    • 4
  • Claude M. Fauquet
    • 5
  • Said A. Ghabrial
    • 6
  • Peter B. Jahrling
    • 7
  • Karl M. Johnson
    • 8
  • Michael R. Holbrook
    • 7
  • Marian C. Horzinek
    • 9
  • Günther M. Keil
    • 10
  • Jens H. Kuhn
    • 7
    • 11
  • Brian W. J. Mahy
    • 12
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
    • 13
  • Craig Pringle
    • 14
  • Edward P. Rybicki
    • 15
  • Tim Skern
    • 16
  • Robert B. Tesh
    • 17
  • Victoria Wahl-Jensen
    • 7
    • 11
  • Peter J. Walker
    • 18
  • Scott C. Weaver
    • 17
  1. 1.Institut de Recherche de l’Ecole de Biotechnologie de StrasbourgBoulevard Sébastien BrantIllkirch CedexFrance
  2. 2.Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  4. 4.DEEDI, Queensland Agricultural Biotechnology CentreThe University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  5. 5.ILTAB, Danforth Plant Science CenterSt LouisUSA
  6. 6.Plant Pathology DepartmentUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  7. 7.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick)NIAID, NIHFort DetrickUSA
  8. 8.Special Pathogens, Centers for Disease Control (retired)PlacitasUSA
  9. 9.Spes NostraBilthovenThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Friedrich-Loeffler-InstitutFederal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  11. 11.Tunnell Consulting Inc.King of PrussiaUSA
  12. 12.NCEZID, CDCAtlantaUSA
  13. 13.Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante e Microbiologia ApplicataBariItaly
  14. 14.Biological SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  15. 15.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  16. 16.Max F. Perutz LaboratoriesMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  17. 17.Department of PathologyUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  18. 18.CSIRO Livestock IndustriesAustralian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL)GeelongAustralia

Personalised recommendations