Experimental infection of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus) with Eurasian bat lyssaviruses Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut virus Authors
First Online: 18 May 2006 Received: 27 June 2005 Accepted: 03 October 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Hughes, G., Kuzmin, I., Schmitz, A. et al. Arch Virol (2006) 151: 2021. doi:10.1007/s00705-005-0785-0 Summary.
Here we describe the results of experimental infections of captive big brown bats (
Eptesicus fuscus) with three newly isolated bat lyssaviruses from Eurasia (Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut viruses). Infection of E. fuscus was moderate (total, 55–75%). There was no evidence of transmission to in-contact cage mates. Incubation periods for Irkut virus infection were significantly shorter ( p < 0.05) than for either Aravan or Khujand virus infections. In turn, quantification of viral RNA by TaqMan PCR suggests that the dynamics of Irkut virus infection may differ from those of Aravan/Khujand virus infection. Although infectious virus and viral RNA were detected in the brain of every rabid animal, dissemination to non-neuronal tissues was limited. Levels of viral RNA in brain of Aravan/Khujand virus-infected bats was significantly correlated with the number of other tissues positive by TaqMan PCR ( p < 0.05), whereas no such relationship was observed for Irkut virus infection (where viral RNA was consistently detected in all tissues other than kidney). Infectious virus was isolated sporadically from salivary glands, and both infectious virus and viral RNA were obtained from oral swabs. The detection of viral RNA in oral swabs suggests that viral shedding in saliva occurred <5 days before the onset of clinical disease. References Badrane, H, Bahloul, C, Perrin, P, Tordo, N 2001 Evidence of two lyssavirus phylogroups with distinct pathogenicity and immunogenicity J Virol 75 3268 3276 PubMed CrossRef Baer, GM, Bales, GL 1967 Experimental rabies infections in the Mexican freetailed bat J Infect Dis 117 82 90 PubMed Baer, GM, Smith, JS 1991 Rabies in nonhematophagous bats Baer, GM eds. The natural history of rabies2 CRC Press Boca Raton 341 366 Botvinkin, AD, Kuzmin, IV, Chernov, SM 1992 Experimental inoculation of bats with lyssaviruses serotypes 1 and 4 Vopr Virusol 4 215 218 Botvinkin, AD, Poleschuk, EM, Kuzmin, IV, Borisova, TI, Gazaryan, SV, Yager, P, Rupprecht, CE 2003 Novel lyssavirus isolated from bats in Russia Emerg Infect Dis 9 1623 1625 PubMed Bourhy, H, Rollin, PE, Vincent, J, Sureau, P 1989 Comparative field evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test, virus isolation from tissue culture and enzyme immunodiagnosis for rapid laboratory diagnosis of rabies J Clin Microbiol 27 519 523 PubMed Bourhy, H, Kissi, B, Lafon, M, Sacramento, D, Tordo, N 1992 Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe J Clin Microbiol 30 2419 2426 PubMed Constantine, DG 1966 Transmission experiment with bat rabies isolates: reaction of certain Carnivora, opossum and bats to intramuscular inoculation of rabies virus isolated from free-tailed bat Am J Vet Res 27 16 19 PubMed Constantine, DG 1967Rabies transmission by air in bat caves Public Health Service Publication Washington DC 51 Domingo, E, Holland, JJ 1994 Mutation rates and rapid evolution of RNA viruses Morse, SS eds. The evolutionary biology of viruses raven press New York 161 184 Echevarria, JE, Avellon, A, Juste, J, Vera, M, Ibanez, C 2001 Screening of active lyssavirus infection in wild bat populations by viral RNA detection on oropharyngeal swabs J Clin Microbiol 39 3678 3683 PubMed CrossRef Hogenhout, SA, Redinbaugh, MG, Ammar, E-D 2003 Plant and animal rhabdovirus host range: a bug’s view Trends Microbiol 11 264 271 PubMed CrossRef Hughes, GJ, Smith, JS, Hanlon, CA, Rupprecht, CE 2004 Evaluation of a TaqMan PCR assay to detect rabies virus RNA: influence of sequence variation and application to quantification of viral loads J Clin Microbiol 42 299 306 PubMed CrossRef Kissi, B, Badrane, H, Audry, L, Lavenu, L, Tordo, N, Brahimi, M, Bourhy, H 1999 Dynamics of rabies virus quasispecies during serial passage in heterologous hosts J Gen Virol 80 2041 2050 PubMed Kuzmin, IV, Botvinkin, AD 1996 The behavior of bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus after experimental inoculation with rabies and rabies-like viruses and some aspects of pathogenesis Myotis 34 93 99 Kuzmin, IV, Orciari, LA, Arai, YT, Smith, JS, Hanlon, CA, Kameoka, Y, Rupprecht, CE 2003 Bat lyssaviruses (Aravan and Khujand) from Central Asia: phylogenetic relationships according to N, P and G gene sequences Virus Res 97 65 79 PubMed CrossRef Kuzmin, IV, Hughes, GJ, Botvinkin, AD, Orciari, LA, Rupprecht, CE 2005 Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the Lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssavirus genotype definition Virus Res 111 28 43 PubMed CrossRef Mondul, AM, Krebs, JW, Childs, JE 2003 Trends in national surveillance for rabies among bats in the United States (1993–2000) J Am Vet Med Assoc 222 633 639 PubMed CrossRef Moreno, J, Baer, GM 1980 Experimental rabies in the vampire bat Am J Trop Med Hyg 29 254 259 PubMed Nadin-Davis, SA, Huang, W, Armstrong, J, Casey, GA, Bahloul, C, Tordo, N, Wandeler, AI 2001 Antigenic and genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species indigenous to Canada Virus Res 74 139 156 PubMed CrossRef Serra-Cobo, J, Amengual, B, Abellan, C, Bourhy, H 2002 European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations Emerg Infect Dis 8 413 420 PubMed CrossRef Setien, AA, Brochier, B, Tordo, N, De Paz, O, Desmettre, P, Peharpre, D, Pastoret, PP 1998 Experimental rabies infection and oral vaccination in vampire bats Vaccine 16 1122 1126 PubMed CrossRef Shankar, V, Bowen, RA, Davis, AD, Rupprecht, CE, O’Shea, TJ 2004 Rabies in a captive colony of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus) J Wild Dis 40 403 413 Sulkin, SE, Krutzsch, PH, Allen, R 1959 Studies of the pathogenesis of rabies in insectivorous bats J Exp Medi 110 369 388 CrossRef Sulkin, SE, Allen, R, Sims, R 1960 Studies of the pathogenesis of Rabies in insectivorous bats II J Exp Medi 112 57 79 Wellenberg, GJ, Audry, L, Rønsholt, L, van der Poel, WHM, Bruschke, CJM, Bourhy, H 2002 Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNAs in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats Arch Virol 147 349 361 PubMed CrossRef WHO 1996 Meslin, F-X Kaplan, MM Koprowski, H eds. Laboratory techniques in rabies4 World Health Organization Geneva 476