Prevalence of swine influenza virus subtypes on swine farms in the United States
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- Choi, Y., Goyal, S. & Joo, H. Arch. Virol. (2002) 147: 1209. doi:10.1007/s00705-002-0788-4
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Serologic and virologic prevalence of infection with different swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes was investigated using swine sera, nasal swabs and lung samples that had been submitted for a diagnosis to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. A total of 111,418 pig sera were tested for SIV antibody between 1998 and 2000, and 25,348 sera (22.8%) were found to be positive by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Of the positive samples, 16,807 (66.7%) and 8,541 (33.7%) had antibody to H1 and H3 subtypes, respectively. Between January 1998 and May of 2001, a total of 3,561 nasal swabs or lung samples were examined for the presence of SIV, and SIV was isolated from 1,124 samples (31.7%). Of these isolates, 869 (77.3%) and 255 (22.7%) were subtyped as H1 and H3, respectively, by the HI method. For further characterization, 120 SIV isolates each from 1998 to 2001 were randomly selected from a culture collection and their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes examined by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. Of the 480 isolates, 322 (67.1%), 22 (4.6%) and 129 (26.9%) were subtyped as H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, respectively. The remaining 7 samples (1.5%) were found to contain both H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. The SIV H1N2 subtype was isolated from 1, 8, and 13 samples in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The 22 H1N2 isolates originated from 9 different states of the United States. Genetic screening of the HA genes of 12 selected H1N2 isolates showed that 8 of them had a close phylogenetic relationship with the Indiana isolate of H1N2 (A/Swine/Indiana/9K035/99), while 4 isolates were closely related to classical SIV H1N1.