Analysis of changes in the magnitude, frequency, and seasonality of heavy precipitation over the contiguous USA
Gridded daily precipitation observations over the contiguous USA are used to investigate the past observed changes in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation, and to examine its seasonality. Analyses are based on the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) daily precipitation data from 1948 to 2012. We use a block maxima approach to identify changes in the magnitude of heavy precipitation and a peak-over-threshold (POT) approach for the changes in the frequency. The results of this study show that there is a stronger signal of change in the frequency rather than in the magnitude of heavy precipitation events. Also, results show an increasing trend in the frequency of heavy precipitation over large areas of the contiguous USA with the most notable exception of the US Northwest. These results indicate that over the last 65 years, the stronger storms are not getting stronger, but a larger number of heavy precipitation events have been observed. The annual maximum precipitation and annual frequency of heavy precipitation reveal a marked seasonality over the contiguous USA. However, we could not find any evidence suggesting shifting in the seasonality of annual maximum precipitation by investigating whether the day of the year at which the maximum precipitation occurs has changed over time. Furthermore, we examine whether the year-to-year variations in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation can be explained in terms of climate variability driven by the influence of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our findings indicate that the climate variability of both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans can exert a large control on the precipitation frequency and magnitude over the contiguous USA. Also, the results indicate that part of the spatial and temporal features of the relationship between climate variability and heavy precipitation magnitude and frequency can be described by one or more of the climate indices considered here.