, Volume 115, Issue 3-4, pp 615-625

Ground-based GPS measurements: time behavior from half-hour to years

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Ground-based GPS and weather stations time series for the period 2010–2012 of precipitable water vapor (PWV), relative humidity (RH), and surface temperature (T) of half-hourly resolution are analyzed to demonstrate their value for dynamical analyses and weather forecasting. Three sample stations in the USA from the SoumiNet network are considered, which have rather continuous data for the last 3 years and a few missing values. Results for the three stations reveal the following features: (1) PWV time behavior is dominated by the annual cycle superimposed on high-frequency fluctuations with missing daily cycle, indicating a prevailing large-scale transport source of precipitable water at these sites; (2) RH is characterized by the daily cycle and high-frequency variability, while the annual cycle is missing; (3) T mainly varies following the annual and diurnal cycles; and (4) all variables show similar scaling properties of their variance spectra, S(f) ∼ f β , with a high-frequency regime of red noise type scaling (β ∼ 2) up to a day and long-term persistence beyond a week (β ∼ 0.5), with a week-long frequency interval of transition. Detrended fluctuation analysis of relative humidity indicates a clear long-term persistence scaling covering more than three decades. Implications of these findings on weather forecasting and climate modeling are discussed.