The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: the Earth’s rotation and atmospheric circulation connection
First Online: 28 August 2006 Received: 17 February 2005 Revised: 16 August 2005 Accepted: 22 January 2006 DOI:
Cite this article as: Mazzarella, A. Theor. Appl. Climatol. (2007) 88: 193. doi:10.1007/s00704-005-0219-z Summary
Spectral analysis of geomagnetic activity, global air temperature, Earth’s rotation rate and zonal circulation, when smoothed from secular trend and periods shorter than 23 years, shows a concentration of energy around the 60-year period explaining more than 80% of the entire variance. This information has enabled the set-up of a cascade physical model that integrates the Sun-atmosphere-Earth system as a single unit and ties solar corpuscular radiation to global warming through Earth’s rotation and atmospheric circulation. Our results suggest that changes in geomagnetic activity, and in the Earth’s rotation, could be used as long- and short-term indicators, respectively, of future changes in global air temperature.
References Abarca del Rio, R 1999 The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed Ann Geophysicae 17 806 811 CrossRef Google Scholar Abarca del Rio, R, Gambis, D, Salstein, D, Nelson, P, Dai, A 2003 Solar activity and earth rotation variability J Geodyn 36 423 443 CrossRef Google Scholar Bath, A 1974Spectral analysis in geophysics Elsevier New York 563 Google Scholar Bendat, JS, Piersol, AC 1971Random data analysis: measurement procedures Wiley-Interscience New York 407 Google Scholar Braginskiy, SI 1982 Analytical description of the secular variations of the geomagnetic field and the rate of rotation of the Earth Geomagn Aeron 22 88 94 Google Scholar Courtillot, V, Le Mouel, JL 1984 Geomagnetic secular variation impulses Nature 311 709 716 CrossRef Google Scholar Ferraro, S, Mazzarella, A 1998 Solar activity and algal bloom occurrences in the Northern Adriatic Sea: geomagnetic connection Theor Appl Climatol 59 129 134 CrossRef Google Scholar Folland, CK, Rayner, NA, Brown, SJ, Smith, TM, Shen, SSP, Parker, DE, Macadam, I, Jones, PD, Jones, RN, Nicholls, N, Sexton, DMH 2001 Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861 Geophys Res Lett 28 2621 2624 CrossRef Google Scholar Jones, PD, New, M, Parker, DE, Martin, S, Rigor, IG 1999 Surface air temperature and its variations over the last 150 years Rev Geophys 37 173 199 CrossRef Google Scholar Legrand, JP, Simon, PA 1989 Solar cycle and geomagnetic activity: A review for geophysicists, I; The contributions to geomagnetic activity of shock waves and of solar wind Ann Geoph 7 565 578 Google Scholar Mayaud, PN 1972 The aa indices: a 100-year series characterizing the magnetic activity J Geophys Res 77 6870 6874 Google Scholar Mazzarella, A, Palumbo, A 1988 Earth’s rotation and solar activity Geophys J 97 169 171 CrossRef Google Scholar Mazzarella, A, Palumbo, A 1994 The lunar nodal induced- signal in climatic and oceanic data over the Western Mediterranean and on its bistable phasing Theor Appl Climatol 50 93 102 CrossRef Google Scholar Mazzarella, A, Palumbo, F 1992 Rainfall fluctuations over Italy and their association with solar activity Theor Appl Climatol 45 201 207 CrossRef Google Scholar Minobe, S 1997 A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America Geophys Res Lett 24 683 686 CrossRef Google Scholar Rossby, CG 1939 Relation between variation in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semipermanent centers of action J Marine Res 2 38 50 Google Scholar Satoh, M, Yoshida, S 1996 Response of the atmospheric angular momentum and the length of the day to the surface temperature increase for an aqua planet model Geophys Res Lett 23 2569 2572 CrossRef Google Scholar Simon, PA, Legrand, JP 1989 Solar cycle and geomagnetic activity: A review for geophysicists, II; The solar sources of geomagnetic activity and their links with sunspot cycle activity Ann Geoph 7 579 594 Google Scholar Stephenson, FR, Morrison, LV 1995 Long-term fluctuations in Earth’s rotation: 700 BC to AD 1990 Phil Trans Roy Soc A 351 165 202 Google Scholar