Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article

Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 120, Issue 4, pp 523-529

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the advanced stage

  • C. OssigAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Dresden University of Technology Email author 
  • , H. ReichmannAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Dresden University of Technology


Levodopa/Carbidopa, respectively, Levodopa/Benserazide is the most effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease and during the progress of the disease, patients will inevitably need to be treated with it. Nonetheless, after a certain time period most of the patients experience side effects. Mainly disturbing are motor and non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Numerous options from changing the medication regimen, to continuos dopaminergic drug delivery via apomorphine or Duodopa pumps and stereotactical interventions are available. The physician’s responsibility is to choose the right therapeutic procedure for each timepoint of the patient’s disease. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the available strategies.


Dyskinesia Motor fluctuations Advanced Parkinson's disease Levodopa