Differentiating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive and combined types: a 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of fronto-striato-thalamic regions
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- Ferreira, P.E.M.S., Palmini, A., Bau, C.H.D. et al. J Neural Transm (2009) 116: 623. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0191-3
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Despite the implication of fronto-striatal circuits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a lack of information on the role of these regions, especially the thalamus, in the heterogeneity of ADHD. We assessed the 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy profile in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)-thalamic-striatal regions bilaterally in three groups of subjects (age range 18–24 years old): ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 9), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 10) and non-ADHD controls (n = 12). The peaks of N-acetylaspartate, Choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr) and glutamate-glutamine-GABA (Glx) to Cr were calculated. Subjects with ADHD-C showed lower mI/Cr ratio in the right VMPFC than controls, higher Cho/Cr ratio in the left thalamus-pulvinar than the ADHD-I group and higher Glx/Cr ratio in left putamen than individuals with ADHD-I and controls. This metabolic profile suggests a disruption of fronto-striato-thalamic structures in the ADHD-C as a result of lower neuronal energetic metabolism.