Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 114, Issue 10, pp 1355–1361

Gait and posture impairment, parkinsonism and cognitive decline in older people

  • R. Camicioli
  • Y. Wang
  • C. Powell
  • A. Mitnitski
  • K. Rockwood
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00702-007-0778-5

Cite this article as:
Camicioli, R., Wang, Y., Powell, C. et al. J Neural Transm (2007) 114: 1355. doi:10.1007/s00702-007-0778-5

Summary

Our objective was to examine the frequency of gait and posture impairment and parkinsonism in 3 waves of the Canadians Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) and to determine their relationship to the development of cognitive impairment-not dementia (CIND) and dementia. A secondary analysis of a Canadian population-based cohort study was performed. People 65 years of age and older without cognitive impairment or dementia underwent examination for the presence of gait or posture impairment (GPI) or parkinsonism (based on the presence of 2/3 signs among resting tremor, rigidity or bradykinesia), both defined by a clinical examination. Risk for development of cognitive impairment or dementia was examined at 5 and 10 year follow up in pre-specified logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and in separate models, frailty. The frequency of GPI ranged from 25 to 30% in cognitively unimpaired to 46–53% in CIND and demented subjects. Parkinsonism was more common with increasing cognitive impairment at each wave of the CSHA. Both GPI and parkinsonism predicted cognitive decline. Frailty reduced, but did not eliminate the impact of these motor measures and was itself a significant predictor of cognitive decline. In conclusion, motor impairment and frailty are common in older people and are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. GPI is common in CIND, while GPI and parkinsonism are both common in dementia.

Keywords: Parkinsonism; dementia; cognitive impairment; gait and posture impairment 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Camicioli
    • 1
  • Y. Wang
    • 2
  • C. Powell
    • 2
  • A. Mitnitski
    • 2
  • K. Rockwood
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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