Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 111, Issue 10, pp 1287–1301

Cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: neurochemical and clinicopathological contributions

  • D. J. Zgaljardic
  • N. S. Foldi
  • J. C. Borod
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00702-004-0178-z

Cite this article as:
Zgaljardic, D., Foldi, N. & Borod, J. J Neural Transm (2004) 111: 1287. doi:10.1007/s00702-004-0178-z

Summary.

The cognitive and behavioral sequelae (i.e., nonmotor profile) of Parkinson’s disease (PD), with executive dysfunction and depression being most prominent, have typically been overshadowed due to an emphasis on motor symptomatology. The apparent categorization of PD as a disorder isolated to the dopaminergic system may be a generalization of the disease pathology. Dopamine therapy, used for the treatment of motor symptoms, has not consistently been shown to resolve nonmotor impairments. Research evidence indicates that nondopaminergic neurotransmitter systems (i.e., serotonergic, noradrenergic, & cholinergic) are disrupted in PD and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Furthermore, Lewy bodies within cortical and subcortical structures can add to the nonmotor profile in PD. Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with PD are few, especially for nondemented patients. The current review of the literature highlights evidence that associates nonmotor dysfunctions with neurochemical and clinicopathological correlates of PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, neurotransmitters, Lewy bodies, dementia, cognition, behavior

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Zgaljardic
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. S. Foldi
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. C. Borod
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for NeurosciencesNorth Shore University HospitalManhassetUSA
  2. 2.Queens College and The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)New YorkUSA
  3. 3.Winthrop-University Hospital, Stony Brook School of MedicineMineolaUSA
  4. 4.Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA