, Volume 156, Issue 11, pp 2041-2049
Date: 03 Aug 2014

Minimally invasive and rapid surgical embolectomy (MIRSE) as rescue treatment following failed endovascular recanalization for acute ischemic stroke

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Abstract

Background

An intra-arterial (IA) mechanical thrombectomy has increased the recanalization rates for acute occlusion of proximal intracranial arteries. However, the current failure rate of endovascular recanalization remains at approximately 10 %, resulting in the need for surgical rescue treatment. The authors applied a minimally invasive and rapid surgical embolectomy (MIRSE) as a final rescue treatment after the failure of endovascular recanalization, and investigated the incidence, technical feasibility, and treatment results.

Methods

For two years, from 2012 to 2013, a total of 131 patients with acute occlusion of proximal intracranial arteries underwent an IA mechanical thrombectomy using a Penumbra System and a Solitaire stent, yet ten (7.6 %) patients still experienced final recanalization failure. Four (40 %) of these ten patients subsequently underwent a MIRSE consisting of a superciliary keyhole approach, arteriotomy to remove the embolus, and arteriotomy repair techniques using aneurysm clips as the final repair material, or a temporary compartmentalizing clip.

Results

Four patients aged 39 to 78 years with an embolic occlusion in the middle cerebral artery (n = 1) and internal carotid artery (n = 3) were treated using a MIRSE. Complete recanalization was achieved in all four patients, and the time from skin incision to reperfusion was 40–50 minutes. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months after surgery were 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), respectively.

Conclusions

A MIRSE can be an effective rescue treatment after the failure of endovascular recanalization therapies for acute occlusion of proximal intracranial arteries if the patient is within the therapeutic time window.